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PERIODICAL FASTING AND CALORIC RESTRICTION FOR LIFE EXTENSION, DISEASE TREATMENT AND CREATIVITY.
(clinical and experimental data)

 
 3.2 CALORIC RESTRICTION AND FASTING EXTEND THE LIFE SPAN AND DECREASE ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY (Evidence) 
   
 
  MONKEY STUDIES 
   
 
Age-related decline in caloric intake and motivation for food in rhesus monkeys.
Calorie restriction in rhesus monkeys.
Effects of dietary caloric restriction and aging on thyroid hormones of rhesus monkeys.
Caloric restriction and aging in primates: Relevance to humans and possible CR mimetics.
Effects of caloric restriction and aging on the auditory function of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): The University of Wisconsin Study.
Dietary restriction and glucose regulation in aging rhesus monkeys: a follow-up report at 8.5 yr.
Dietary caloric restriction prevents the age-related decline in plasma melatonin levels of rhesus monkeys.
Caloric restriction in primates.
Caloric restriction in primates and relevance to humans.
Dietary restriction and aging in rhesus monkeys: the University of Wisconsin study.
Short-term calorie restriction improves disease-related markers in older male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).
Effects of reduced energy intake on the biology of aging: the primate model.
Locomotor activity in female rhesus monkeys: assessment of age and calorie restriction effects.
Calorie restriction in nonhuman primates: effects on diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk.
Caloric intake and aging: mechanisms in rodents and a study in nonhuman primates.
Long-term calorie restriction reduces energy expenditure in aging monkeys.
Influence of caloric restriction on the development of atherosclerosis in nonhuman primates: progress to date.
Nutritional modulation of aging in nonhuman primates.
Activity measures in rhesus monkeys on long-term calorie restriction.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate: a biomarker of primate aging slowed by calorie restriction.
Calorie restriction lowers body temperature in rhesus monkeys, consistent with a postulated anti-aging mechanism in rodents.
Diet restriction in rhesus monkeys lowers fasting and glucose-stimulated glucoregulatory end points.
Dietary restriction of adult male rhesus monkeys: design, methodology, and preliminary findings from the first year of study.
Dietary restriction in nonhuman primates: progress report on the NIA study.
Dietary restriction and aging: the initiation of a primate study.
 
 
   
   

2005

Neurobiol Aging. 2005 Jul;26(7):1117-27. Epub 2004 Dec 10.
Age-related decline in caloric intake and motivation for food in rhesus monkeys.
Mattison JA, Black A, Huck J, Moscrip T, Handy A, Tilmont E, Roth GS, Lane MA, Ingram DK.
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Human studies have documented age-related declines in caloric intake that are pronounced at advanced ages. We examined caloric intake from a longitudinal study of aging in 60 male and 60 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) collected for up to 10 years. Monkeys were provided a standardized, nutritionally fortified diet during two daily meals, and intake was measured quarterly. About half of the monkeys were on a regimen of caloric restriction (CR) representing about a 30% reduction in caloric intake compared to controls (CON) of comparable age and body weight. CR was applied to determine if this nutritional intervention retards the rate of aging in monkeys similar to observations in other mammalian studies. Following reproductive maturity at 6 years of age, there was a consistent age-related decline in caloric intake in these monkeys. Although males had higher intake than females, and CON had higher intake compared to CR, the sex and diet differences converged at older ages (>20 years); thus, older CR monkeys were no longer consuming 30% less than the CON. When adjusted for body weight, an age-related decline in caloric intake was still evident; however, females had higher intake compared to males while CR monkeys still consumed less food, and again differences converged at older ages. Motivation for food was assessed in 65 of the monkeys following at least 8 years in their respective diet groups. Using an apparatus attached to the home cage, following an overnight fast, monkeys were trained to reach out of their cage to retrieve a biscuit of their diet by pushing open a clear plastic door on the apparatus. The door was then locked, and thus the biscuit was irretrievable. The time spent trying to retrieve the biscuit was recorded as a measure of motivation for food. We observed an age-related decline in this measure, but found no consistent differences in retrieval time between CR and CON groups of comparable age and time on diet. The results demonstrate an age-related decline in food intake and motivation for food in rhesus monkeys paralleling findings in humans; however, we found no evidence that monkeys on a long-term CR regimen were more motivated for food compared to CON. Examining the relationship of selected blood proteins to food intake following 7-11 years on the study, we found a negative correlation between globulin and intake among males and females after accounting for differences in age. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between leptin and intake in males.

   
   

2003

Exp Gerontol. 2003 Jan-Feb;38(1-2):35-46
Calorie restriction in rhesus monkeys.
Mattison JA, Lane MA, Roth GS, Ingram DK.
Intramural Research Program, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, NIH, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Calorie restriction (CR) extends lifespan and reduces the incidence and age of onset of age-related disease in several animal models. To determine if this nutritional intervention has similar actions in a long-lived primate species, the National Institute on Aging (NIA) initiated a study in 1987 to investigate the effects of a 30% CR in male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of a broad age range. We have observed physiological effects of CR that parallel rodent studies and may be predictive of an increased lifespan. Specifically, results from the NIA study have demonstrated that CR decreases body weight and fat mass, improves glucoregulatory function, decreases blood pressure and blood lipids, and decreases body temperature. Juvenile males exhibited delayed skeletal and sexual maturation. Adult bone mass was not affected by CR in females nor were several reproductive hormones or menstrual cycling. CR attenuated the age-associated decline in both dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and melatonin in males. Although 81% of the monkeys in the study are still alive, preliminary evidence suggests that CR will have beneficial effects on morbidity and mortality. We are now preparing a battery of measures to provide a thorough and relevant analysis of the effectiveness of CR at delaying the onset of age-related disease and maintaining function later into life.

   
   

2002

Horm Metab Res. 2002 Jul;34(7):378-82
Effects of dietary caloric restriction and aging on thyroid hormones of rhesus monkeys.
Roth GS, Handy AM, Mattison JA, Tilmont EM, Ingram DK, Lane MA.
Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

Plasma levels of thyroid hormones - triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxin (T 4 ), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in male and female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) fed either ad libitum or a 30 % calorie-restricted (CR) diet (males for 11 years; females for 6 years). The same hormones were measured in another group of young male rhesus monkeys during adaptation to the 30 % CR regimen. Both long- and shorter-term CR diet lowered total T 3 in plasma of the monkeys. The effect appeared to be greater in younger monkeys than in older counterparts. No effects of CR diet were detected for either free or total T 4, although unlike T 3, levels of this hormone decreased with age. TSH levels also decreased with age, and were increased by long-term CR diet in older monkeys only. No consistent effects of shorter-term CR diet were observed for TSH. In the light of the effects of the thyroid axis on overall metabolism, these results suggest a possible mechanism by which CR diets may elicit their well-known beneficial 'anti-aging' effects in mammals.

   
   
Microsc Res Tech. 2002 Nov 15;59(4):335-8
Caloric restriction and aging in primates: Relevance to humans and possible CR mimetics.
Lane MA, Mattison J, Ingram DK, Roth GS.
Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

For nearly 70 years it has been recognized that reduction in caloric intake by 30-40% from ad libitum levels leads to a significant extension of mean and maximal lifespan in a variety of short-lived species. This effect of caloric restriction (CR) on lifespan has been reported in nearly all species tested and has been reproduced hundreds of times under a variety of different laboratory conditions. In addition to prolonging lifespan, CR also prevents or delays the onset of age-related disease and maintains many physiological functions at more youthful levels. Studies in longer-lived species, specifically rhesus and squirrel monkeys, have been underway since the late 1980s. The studies in nonhuman primates are beginning to yield valuable information suggesting that the effect of CR on aging is universal across species and that this nutritional paradigm will have similar effects in humans. Even if CR can be shown to impact upon human aging, it is unlikely that most people will be able to maintain the strict dietary control required for this regimen. Thus, elucidation of the biological mechanisms of CR and development of alternative strategies to yield similar benefits is of primary importance. CR mimetics, or interventions that "mimic" certain protective effects of CR, may represent one such alternative strategy.

   
   
Hear Res. 2002 Jul;169(1-2):24-35
Effects of caloric restriction and aging on the auditory function of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): The University of Wisconsin Study.
Fowler CG, Torre P 3rd, Kemnitz JW.
Department of Communicative Disorders, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin Regional Primate Center, 1975 Willow Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

The present study is part of a larger project that investigates the effect of caloric restriction on longevity in the rhesus monkey. The purpose of the present study was to document presbycusis and the effect of caloric restriction on presbycusis in monkeys. The control group had 35 monkeys allowed to eat freely and the caloric-restricted group (CR) had 33 monkeys with a 30% reduction in caloric intake. Monaural and binaural auditory brainstem response (ABR) and middle latency response (MLR) were obtained from 27 female and 41 male monkeys that were 11-23 years of age and had been in the study for 102, 42, or 36 months when tested. Significant findings were the following: (1) wave I amplitudes were larger for females and for younger monkeys, and amplitudes decreased in aging males but not in aging females; (2) wave IV amplitudes were larger for females than males, and amplitudes for CR females were larger than for female controls, whereas the amplitudes from control and CR males were not different; (3) wave Pa latencies were shorter for females, and shorter latencies were maintained for aging females but not for aging males; (4) interwave interval IV-Pa was shorter for females, and intervals lengthened for aging males but not aging females; (5) binaural wave IV amplitude decreased faster with age for control monkeys than for CR monkeys, and the L+R Pa amplitude decreased with age. Additional trends were identified for longitudinal monitoring as monkeys enter old age.

   
   

2001

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Oct;281(4):E757-65
Dietary restriction and glucose regulation in aging rhesus monkeys: a follow-up report at 8.5 yr.
Gresl TA, Colman RJ, Roecker EB, Havighurst TC, Huang Z, Allison DB, Bergman RN, Kemnitz JW.
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison 53715, USA.

In a longitudinal study of the effects of moderate (70%) dietary restriction (DR) on aging, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured from semiannual, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests (FSIGTT) in 30 adult male rhesus monkeys. FSIGTT data were analyzed with Bergman's minimal model, and analysis of covariance revealed that restricted (R) monkeys exhibited increased insulin sensitivity (S(I), P < 0.001) and plasma glucose disappearance rate (K(G), P = 0.015), and reduced fasting plasma insulin (I(b), P < 0.001) and insulin response to glucose (AIR(G), P = 0.023) compared with control (C; ad libitum-fed) monkeys. DR reduced the baseline fasting hyperinsulinemia of two R monkeys, whereas four C monkeys have maintained from baseline, or subsequently developed, fasting hyperinsulinemia; one has progressed to diabetes. Compared with only the normoinsulinemic C monkeys, R monkeys exhibited similarly improved FSIGTT and minimal-model parameters. Thus chronic DR not only has protected against the development of insulin resistance in aging rhesus monkeys, but has also improved glucoregulatory parameters compared with those of otherwise normoinsulinemic monkeys.

   
   
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jul;86(7):3292-5
Dietary caloric restriction prevents the age-related decline in plasma melatonin levels of rhesus monkeys.
Roth GS, Lesnikov V, Lesnikov M, Ingram DK, Lane MA.
Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

Rhesus monkeys exhibit an age-associated decrease in peak plasma melatonin levels analogous to that reported for humans. This decrease is essentially abolished in monkeys subjected to a 30% reduction in caloric intake over a 12-yr period. The caloric restriction (CR) effect does not seem to be a reversal, but rather a long-term prevention, of the age-related decline in hormone concentrations. The age effect does not seem to be due to a phase shift in the peak of melatonin secretions, as has been observed in some populations of aged humans. It is also extremely unlikely that the CR effect simply reflects a phase shift, since old monkeys on the diet have nocturnal melatonin levels equal to or greater than adult fully fed controls. Thus, if peak times (approximately 0200 h) were actually shifted, maximal levels in old CR monkeys would be even higher. These findings, coupled with previous observations in humans, suggest that peak plasma melatonin levels may represent a possible candidate "biomarker of aging" in primates. Moreover, this index of age-associated physiological decrement seems to be inhibited by dietary CR.

   
   
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Apr;928:287-95
Caloric restriction in primates.
Lane MA, Black A, Handy A, Tilmont EM, Ingram DK, Roth GS.
Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

Caloric restriction (CR) remains the only nongenetic intervention that reproducibly extends mean and maximal life span in short-lived mammalian species. This nutritional intervention also delays the onset, or slows the progression, of many age-related disease processes. The diverse effects of CR have been demonstrated many hundreds of times in laboratory rodents and other short-lived species, such as rotifers, water fleas, fish, spiders, and hamsters. Until recently, the effects of CR in longer-lived species, more closely related to humans, remained unknown. Long-term studies of aging in nonhuman primates undergoing CR have been underway at the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) for over a decade. A number of reports from the NIA and UW colonies have shown that monkeys on CR exhibit nearly identical physiological responses as reported in laboratory rodents. Studies of various markers related to age-related diseases suggest that CR will prevent or delay the onset of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and perhaps cancer, and preliminary data indicate that mortality due to these and other age-associated diseases may also be reduced in monkeys on CR, compared to controls. Conclusive evidence showing that CR extends life span in primates is not presently available; however, the emerging data from the ongoing primate studies strengthens the possibility that the diverse beneficial effects of CR on aging in rodents will also apply to nonhuman primates and perhaps ultimately to humans.

   
   
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Apr;928:305-15
Caloric restriction in primates and relevance to humans.
Roth GS, Ingram DK, Lane MA.
Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

Dietary caloric restriction (CR) is the only intervention conclusively and reproducibly shown to slow aging and maintain health and vitality in mammals. Although this paradigm has been known for over 60 years, its precise biological mechanisms and applicability to humans remain unknown. We began addressing the latter question in 1987 with the first controlled study of CR in primates (rhesus and squirrel monkeys, which are evolutionarily much closer to humans than the rodents most frequently employed in CR studies). To date, our results strongly suggest that the same beneficial "antiaging" and/or "antidisease" effects observed in CR rodents also occur in primates. These include lower plasma insulin levels and greater sensitivity; lower body temperatures; reduced cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, and arterial stiffness; elevated HDL; and slower age-related decline in circulating levels of DHEAS. Collectively, these biomarkers suggest that CR primates will be less likely to incur diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and other age-related diseases and may in fact be aging more slowly than fully fed counterparts. Despite these very encouraging results, it is unlikely that most humans would be willing to maintain a 30% reduced diet for the bulk of their adult life span, even if it meant more healthy years. For this reason, we have begun to explore CR mimetics, agents that might elicit the same beneficial effects as CR, without the necessity of dieting. Our initial studies have focused on 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), a sugar analogue with a limited metabolism that actually reduces glucose/energy flux without decreasing food intake in rats. In a six-month pilot study, 2DG lowered plasma insulin and body temperature in a manner analagous to that of CR. Thus, metabolic effects that mediate the CR mechanism can be attained pharmacologically. Doses were titrated to eliminate toxicity; a long-term longevity study is now under way. In addition, data from other laboratories suggest that at least some of the same physiological/metabolic end points that are associated with the beneficial effects of underfeeding may be obtained from other potential CR mimetic agents, some naturally occurring in food products. Much work remains to be done, but taken together, our successful results with CR in primates and 2DG administration to rats suggest that it may indeed be possible to obtain the health- and longevity-promoting effects of the former intervention without actually decreasing food intake.

   
   

2000

Exp Gerontol. 2000 Dec;35(9-10):1131-49
Dietary restriction and aging in rhesus monkeys: the University of Wisconsin study.
Ramsey JJ, Colman RJ, Binkley NC, Christensen JD, Gresl TA, Kemnitz JW, Weindruch R.
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

Dietary restriction (DR) retards aging and extends the maximum lifespan of laboratory mice and rats. To determine whether DR has similar actions in a primate species, we initiated a study in 1989 to investigate the effects of a 30% DR in 30 adult male rhesus monkeys. In 1994, an additional 30 females and 16 males were added to the study. Although the animals are still middle-aged, a few differences have developed between the control and DR animals suggesting that DR may induce physiologic changes in the rhesus monkey similar to those observed in rodents. Fasting basal insulin and glucose concentrations are lower in DR compared to control animals while insulin sensitivity is higher in the restricted animals. DR has also altered circulating LDL in a manner that may inhibit atherogenesis. These results suggest that DR may be slowing some age-related physiologic changes. In addition to measures of glucose and lipid metabolism, the animals are evaluated annually for body composition, energy expenditure, physical activity, hematologic indices, and blood or urinary hormone concentrations. In the next few years, the first animals will reach the average lifespan ( approximately 26 years) of captive rhesus monkeys and it will become possible to determine if DR retards the aging process and extends the lifespan in a primate species.

   
   
Mech Ageing Dev. 2000 Jan 10;112(3):185-96
Short-term calorie restriction improves disease-related markers in older male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).
Lane MA, Tilmont EM, De Angelis H, Handy A, Ingram DK, Kemnitz JW, Roth GS.
Intramural Research Program, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Calorie restriction (CR) is widely known for its effects on life span, physiological aging and age-related disease in laboratory rats and mice. Emerging data from CR studies in rhesus monkeys suggest that this nutritional intervention paradigm may also have beneficial effects in long-lived mammals. Studies from our laboratory and others have suggested that young- or adult-onset CR might have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease and diabetes. For example, long-term CR reduced body fat and serum triglycerides, and increased a subfraction of HDL cholesterol associated with decreased cardiovascular disease risk. These studies suggested that long-term CR begun in young or adult animals might have important effects on markers relevant to age-related disease. Few studies have examined the effects of CR initiated in older animals (rodents or monkeys), and the temporal nature of some potentially beneficial effects of CR is unknown. The present study examined several markers related to diabetes and cardiovascular disease in thirteen older adult (> 18 year) non-obese (body fat < 22%), male rhesus monkeys during a short-term CR paradigm. Specifically, we collected these data at baseline (ad libitum feeding), 10, 20, and 30% CR, and at 6 and 12 months on 30% CR. Fasting and peak insulin were significantly reduced as were the acute and second-phase insulin responses. CR also marginally reduced triglycerides (50% reduction), but had no effect on total serum cholesterol or blood pressure. Interestingly, the observed glucoregulatory changes emerged prior to any evidence of a change in body composition suggesting that certain effects of CR may not be wholly dependent on changes in body composition in older monkeys.

   
   
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jun;54 Suppl 3:S15-20
Effects of reduced energy intake on the biology of aging: the primate model.
Roth GS, Ingram DK, Black A, Lane MA.
National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Dietary energy restriction is the only proven method for extending lifespan and slowing aging in mammals, while maintaining health and vitality. Although the first experiments in this area were conducted over 60 y ago in rodents, possible applicability to primates has only been examined in controlled studies since 1987. Our project at the National Institute on Aging began with 3-0 male rhesus and 30 male squirrel monkeys of various ages over their respective life spans. Subsequently, it has been expanded to include female rhesus monkeys, and several other laboratories have initiated related studies. Experimental animals are generally fed 30% less than controls, and diets are supplemented with micronutrients to achieve undernutrition without malnutrition. These calorically restricted (CR) monkeys are lighter, with less fat and lean mass than controls. Bone mass is also slightly reduced, but in approximate proportion to the smaller body size. CR animals mature more slowly and achieve shorter stature than controls as well. Metabolically, CR monkeys have slightly lower body temperature and initial energy expenditure following onset of restriction, and better glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The latter suggest a reduced predisposition towards diabetes as the animals age. Other potential anti-disease effects include biomarkers suggestive of lessened risk of cardiovascular disease and possibly cancer. Candidate biomarkers of aging, including the age-related decrease in plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), suggest that the CR animals may be aging more slowly than controls in some respects, although sufficient survival data will require more time to accumulate. In summary, nearly all CR effects detected in rodents, which have thus far been examined in primates, exhibit similar phenomenology. Potential applicability of these beneficial effects to humans is discussed.

   
   
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000 Aug;55(8):B373-80
Locomotor activity in female rhesus monkeys: assessment of age and calorie restriction effects.
Moscrip TD, Ingram DK, Lane MA, Roth GS, Weed JL.
ROW Sciences, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.

As a component of a long-term, longitudinal study of aging in this primate model, the objective of the current experiment was to assess age and diet effects on locomotor activity in a cross-sectional analysis. By attaching a motion detection device to the home cage, locomotor activity was monitored over a week in a group (N = 47) of female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) 6-26 yrs of age. About half these monkeys composed a control group fed a nutritionally fortified diet near ad libitum levels, whereas an experimental group had been fed the same diet at levels 30% less than comparable control levels for approximately 5 yrs prior to testing. Among control monkeys, a marked age-related decline in activity was noted when total activity was considered and also when diurnal and nocturnal periods of activity were analyzed separately. When comparing activity levels between control and experimental groups, only one significant diet effect was noted, which was in the youngest group of monkeys (6-8 yrs of age) during the diurnal period. Monkeys in the experimental group exhibited reduced activity compared to controls. Body weight was not consistently correlated to activity levels. In some older groups, heavier monkeys tended to show greater activity, but in younger groups the opposite pattern was observed.

   
   

1999

Toxicol Sci. 1999 Dec;52(2 Suppl):41-8
Calorie restriction in nonhuman primates: effects on diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk.
Lane MA, Ingram DK, Roth GS.
Intramural Research Program, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, NIH Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

The effects of calorie restriction (CR) on life span, disease, and aging in physiological systems have been documented extensively in rodent models. However, whether CR has similar effects in longer-lived species more closely related to humans remains unknown. Studies of CR and aging using nonhuman primates (rhesus monkeys) have been ongoing for several years at the National Institute on Aging and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The majority of data published from these studies are consistent with the extensive findings reported in rodents. For example, monkeys on CR weigh less and have less body fat. Monkeys on CR also exhibit lower body temperature, fasting blood glucose and insulin, and serum lipids. In addition, insulin sensitivity is increased in monkeys on CR. Recent efforts in the NIA study have focused on the effect of this intervention on risk factors for various age-related diseases, in particular for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We have shown that monkeys on CR have lower blood pressure, reduced body fat, and a reduced trunk:leg fat ratio. Also, monkeys on CR have reduced triglycerides and cholesterol and have increased levels of HDL2B. Low levels of this HDL subfraction have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease in humans. In short-term studies, older (> 18 years) monkeys on CR exhibit reductions in insulin and triglycerides before changes in body composition and fat distribution became evident. These and other findings have suggested that CR might have beneficial effects on certain disease risk factors independent of reductions in body weight or prevention of obesity.

   
   
Toxicol Sci. 1999 Dec;52(2 Suppl):35-40
Caloric intake and aging: mechanisms in rodents and a study in nonhuman primates.
Wanagat J, Allison DB, Weindruch R.
Integrated M.D./Ph.D. Program, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53705, USA.

Caloric restriction (CR) increases maximum life span in rodents while attenuating the development of age-associated pathological and biological changes. Although nearly all of the rodent studies have initiated CR early in life (1-3 months of age), CR, when started at 12 months of age, also extends maximum life span in mice. Two main questions face investigators of CR. One concerns the mechanisms by which CR retards aging and diseases in rodents. There is evidence that CR may act, at least in part, by reducing oxidative stress. A CR-induced decrease in oxidative stress appears to be most profound in post-mitotic tissues and may derive from lower mitochondrial production of free radicals. The second issue is whether CR will exert similar effects in primates. Studies on CR in rhesus monkeys (maximum life span approximately 40 years) support the notion of human translatability. We describe the University of Wisconsin Study of rhesus monkeys subjected to a 30% reduction of caloric intake starting at either 1989 or 1994 when they were approximately 10 years old. The data from our study and from other trials suggest that CR can be safely carried out in monkeys and that certain physiological effects of CR that occur in rodents (e.g., decreased blood glucose and insulin levels, improved insulin sensitivity, and lowering of body temperature) also occur in monkeys. Whether oxidative stress in monkeys is reduced by CR will be known by the year 2000, while effects on longevity and diseases should be clearly seen by, appropriately, 2020.

   
   
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1999 Jan;54(1):B5-11; discussion B12-3
Long-term calorie restriction reduces energy expenditure in aging monkeys.
DeLany JP, Hansen BC, Bodkin NL, Hannah J, Bray GA.
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

Calorie restriction to produce stable long-term adult body weight for approximately 10 years prevents obesity and diabetes in middle-aged rhesus monkeys. To determine whether this dietary regimen also alters energy metabolism, the doubly labeled water method was used to measure total daily energy expenditure. Six adult male rhesus monkeys, which had been calorie-restricted for more than 10 years, were compared to 8 control adult monkeys, which had been fed ad libitum for their entire lives. The calorie-restricted monkeys weighed less than the ad-libitum fed monkeys and had a lower lean body mass and lower fat mass. Total daily energy expenditure was lower in the calorie-restricted than in the ad-libitum fed monkeys, even when corrected for differences in body size using body weight (563 +/- 64 vs 780 +/- 53 kcal/d; p < .04), surface area (547 +/- 67 vs 793 +/- 56 kcal/d; p < .05), or lean body mass (535 +/- 66 vs 801 +/- 54 kcal/d; p < .02) as covariates. Thyroxine (T4) was reduced and the free thyroxine index was suggestively lower in the calorie-restricted monkeys whereas triiodothyronine (T3) was not significantly different. Activity in calorie-restricted monkeys was similar to that of a weight-matched younger adult comparison group. We conclude that the process of preventing obesity by long-term caloric restriction causes a significant and sustained long-term reduction in energy expenditure, even when corrected for lean body mass.

   
   
Toxicol Sci. 1999 Dec;52(2 Suppl):49-55
Influence of caloric restriction on the development of atherosclerosis in nonhuman primates: progress to date.
Cefalu WT, Wagner JD, Bell-Farrow AD, Edwards IJ, Terry JG, Weindruch R, Kemnitz JW.
Department of Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington 05405, USA.

Caloric restriction (CR) has been observed to retard aging processes and extend the maximum life span in rodents. In an effort to evaluate the effect of this nutritional intervention on physiologic variables in higher species, several nonhuman primate trials are ongoing. In particular, a study evaluating the independent effect of CR on the extent of atherosclerosis was initiated in 1993 in 32 adult cynomolgus monkeys. Therefore, the trial was designed to achieve identical cholesterol intake after animals were randomized to a control group or a calorie-restricted group (30% reduction from baseline caloric intake). The animals were routinely evaluated for glycated proteins, plasma insulin and glucose levels, insulin sensitivity, and specific measures for abdominal fat distribution by CT scans over a 4-year interval. The results from 4 years of intervention demonstrate that CR improves cardiovascular risk factors (such as visceral fat accumulation) and improves insulin sensitivity. In contrast to other primate studies with normolipidemic animals, CR had no independent effects on plasma lipid levels and composition in the presence of equivalent amounts of dietary cholesterol intake. Preliminary analysis of atherosclerotic lesion extent in the abdominal aorta has failed to demonstrate differences between control animals and CR animals. Follow-up studies are being conducted to determine the effect of CR on atherosclerosis extent in coronary and carotid arteries.

   
   
J Nutr Health Aging. 1999;3(2):69-76
Nutritional modulation of aging in nonhuman primates.
Lane MA, Ingram DK, Roth GS.
Intramural Research Program, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Caloric restriction (CR), undernutrition without malnutrition, remains the only experimental paradigm that has been shown consistently to extend lifespan and slow aging in short-lived species. Decades of research, mostly in laboratory rodents, have shown that CR consistently extends lifespan, reduces or delays the onset of many age-related diseases and slows aging in many physiological systems. In recent years gerontologists interested in CR have focused on two unanswered questions. 1) What is the relevance of this nutritional paradigm to human aging? and 2) What biological mechanism(s) underlie the diverse effects of CR leading to a retardation of aging and disease?. To address the question of human relevance, researchers in the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging began a study of CR in nonhuman primates in the late 1980s. In addition to assessing the effects of CR on aging in primates, a major focus of this work relates to possible metabolic mechanisms of CR. A subsequent study at the University of Wisconsin Madison was initiated in the early 1990s. Certain aspects of experimental design differ between these two important ongoing investigations, but generally these studies compliment each other in many ways and have begun to provide much important data regarding the effects of CR in primates. Emerging data from these studies strongly support that physiological responses to CR in monkeys parallel the extensive findings reported in rodents. Lifespan data will not be available for several years, however, the remarkable consistency with rodent studies, in which lifespan extension is documented extensively, strengthens the possibility that CR will also extend lifespan in primates, perhaps including humans. This review summarizes the major findings from the primate CR studies after over a decade of research in this model.

   
   

1997

Physiol Behav. 1997 Jul;62(1):97-103
Activity measures in rhesus monkeys on long-term calorie restriction.
Weed JL, Lane MA, Roth GS, Speer DL, Ingram DK.
Brain Imaging Center, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Calorie restriction (CR), undernutrition without malnutrition, extends the mean and maximal lifespan of several ecologically diverse species. Rodents on CR demonstrate increased activity measured as spontaneous locomotion, wheel running, open field behavior or movement. Activity measures were recorded from 19 male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as either controls (C) which were fed a nutritious diet to approximate ad libitum levels, or as experimentals (E) which were fed 30% less than age- and weight-matched controls. Within each diet group, some monkeys (n = 10) began CR at 2.3 years of age (range 2.2-2.4 yrs, J Group) while another group (n = 9) began CR at approximately 4.6 years of age (range 4-5.25, A group). Beginning about 6 years after initiation of the study, behavioral activity was measured via ultrasonic motion detectors and recorded on videotape. Diurnal and circadian activity was clearly discernible. Peaks in activity were associated with mealtime and colony husbandry. Compared to Group A, Group J monkeys exhibited higher overall activity as measured by sensors, and also significantly more circling. Compared to AC monkeys, group AE monkeys demonstrated higher rates of gross motor behavior, pacing, stereotypies and grooming. The increases in motor activity observed in one group of monkeys were consistent with results obtained from rodent studies of CR and aging. CR did not significantly inhibit or negatively influence the display of behavior of rhesus monkeys in the laboratory environment. We report here, for the first time, increases in activity due to CR in a model other than the rodent.

   
   
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Jul;82(7):2093-6
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate: a biomarker of primate aging slowed by calorie restriction.
Lane MA, Ingram DK, Ball SS, Roth GS.
Gerontology Research Center, Nathan W. Shock Laboratories, National Institutes of Health, Johns Hopkins University Bayview Campus, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

The adrenal steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS), have attracted attention for their possible antiaging effects. DHEAS levels in humans decline markedly with age, suggesting the potential importance of this parameter as a biomarker of aging. Here we report that, as seen in humans, male and female rhesus monkeys exhibit a steady, age-related decline in serum DHEAS. This decline meets several criteria for a biomarker of aging, including cross-sectional and longitudinal linear decreases with age and significant stability of individual differences over time. In addition, the proportional age-related loss of DHEAS in rhesus monkeys is over twice the rate of decline observed in humans. Most important is the finding that, in rhesus monkeys, calorie restriction, which extends life span and retards aging in laboratory rodents, slows the postmaturational decline in serum DHEAS levels. This represents the first evidence that this nutritional intervention has the potential to alter aspects of postmaturational aging in a long-lived species.

   
   

1996

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Apr 30;93(9):4159-64
Calorie restriction lowers body temperature in rhesus monkeys, consistent with a postulated anti-aging mechanism in rodents.
Lane MA, Baer DJ, Rumpler WV, Weindruch R, Ingram DK, Tilmont EM, Cutler RG, Roth GS.
Molecular Physiology and Genetics Section, Nathan W. Shock Laboratories, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Many studies of caloric restriction (CR) in rodents and lower animals indicate that this nutritional manipulation retards aging processes, as evidenced by increased longevity, reduced pathology, and maintenance of physiological function in a more youthful state. The anti-aging effects of CR are believed to relate, at least in part, to changes in energy metabolism. We are attempting to determine whether similar effects occur in response to CR in nonhuman primates. Core (rectal) body temperature decreased progressively with age from 2 to 30 years in rhesus monkeys fed ad lib (controls) and is reduced by approximately 0.5 degrees C in age-matched monkeys subjected to 6 years of a 30% reduction in caloric intake. A short-term (1 month) 30% restriction of 2.5-year-old monkeys lowered subcutaneous body temperature by 1.0 degrees C. Indirect calorimetry showed that 24-hr energy expenditure was reduced by approximately 24% during short-term CR. The temporal association between reduced body temperature and energy expenditure suggests that reductions in body temperature relate to the induction of an energy conservation mechanism during CR. These reductions in body temperature and energy expenditure are consistent with findings in rodent studies in which aging rate was retarded by CR, now strengthening the possibility that CR may exert beneficial effects in primates analogous to those observed in rodents.

   
   

1995

Am J Physiol. 1995 May;268(5 Pt 1):E941-8
Diet restriction in rhesus monkeys lowers fasting and glucose-stimulated glucoregulatory end points.
Lane MA, Ball SS, Ingram DK, Cutler RG, Engel J, Read V, Roth GS.
Molecular Physiology and Genetics Section, Nathan Shock Laboratories, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore 21224, USA.

Male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) of different age groups representing the species life span were fed ad libitum or a 30% reduced calorie diet over a 7-yr period. During the first 2-3 yr of this longitudinal study, glucose and insulin levels were not altered by diet restriction (DR). However, reductions in fasting blood glucose became apparent in DR animals after 3-4 yr. At the end of the 6th yr of study, glycated hemoglobin was measured, and intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) were conducted. Maximum glucose levels reached during IVGTTs increased with age but were lower in DR animals compared with controls. Several measures of the insulin response (baseline, maximum, and integrated areas under curve) increased with age and were lower in DR monkeys. With the exception of glycated hemoglobin, which was not different in monkeys subjected to DR, these findings confirm previous studies in rodents demonstrating that DR alters glucose metabolism and may be related to the antiaging action of this intervention.

   
   

1993

J Gerontol. 1993 Jan;48(1):B17-26
Dietary restriction of adult male rhesus monkeys: design, methodology, and preliminary findings from the first year of study.
Kemnitz JW, Weindruch R, Roecker EB, Crawford K, Kaufman PL, Ershler WB.
Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Dietary restriction (DR) retards aging processes and extends maximum life span in rodents and in simpler animals. We initiated a study in 30 adults (8-14 years old) male rhesus monkeys to determine whether or not aging processes are retarded by adult-onset DR in a primate species and herein report results from the experiment's first year. Following a 3-6 month period when baseline data were obtained, 15 animals were assigned to a control group and given free access to a semipurified diet for 6-8 hours per day. The other 15 monkeys were fed the same diet but at 70% of their baseline intake levels predetermined individually. The animals are being evaluated semi-annually for body size and composition, physical activity, metabolic rate, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, hematologic indices, immunologic function, and fingernail growth. Ocular function is assessed annually. The preliminary observations after one year are: (a) all monkeys appear to be in excellent health; (b) average body weights for controls increased by 9% while monkeys on DR did not gain weight; (c) monkeys on DR have less body fat than do control monkeys, whereas the amount of lean body mass has not been significantly influenced by DR; (d) there was a small but statistically significant reduction in physical activity for monkeys on DR relative to controls; and (e) DR has not overtly influenced the other measures. Control monkeys gradually reduced their voluntary levels of food intake during the first year of study, and food allotments to DR monkeys are being adjusted accordingly in order to reinstate the intended 30% difference between groups. These early data indicate that DR can be safely instituted in adult monkeys, but that longer term and/or more severe DR is required to determine if it is capable of influencing age-sensitive indices in long-lived primates.

   
   

1992

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992 Dec 26;673:36-45
Dietary restriction in nonhuman primates: progress report on the NIA study.
Lane MA, Ingram DK, Cutler RG, Knapka JJ, Barnard DE, Roth GS.
Molecular Physiology and Genetics Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Francis Scott Key Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21224.

Rhesus and squirrel monkeys have been fed a semisynthetic diet at approximately ad libitum or 30% reduced levels for 3.5 (rhesus group 2) to 4.5 (rhesus group 1 and squirrel) years. Animals have maintained excellent health status as determined by physical examinations, hematology, and blood chemistry. While relative rates of body weight gain in restricted group 1 rhesus and squirrel monkeys have been markedly reduced, DR effects on crown-rump length (body height) have been variable. In addition, numerous physiological and biochemical parameters have been measured, and several exhibit significant cross-sectional age effects. Interestingly, several of these also exhibit possible species and genotype (group 1 and 2 rhesus) differences. A number of physiological parameters are emerging that might be altered by DR; however, further explanation of these effects awaits more extensive and detailed analyses.

   
   

1990

J Gerontol. 1990 Sep;45(5):B148-63
Dietary restriction and aging: the initiation of a primate study.
Ingram DK, Cutler RG, Weindruch R, Renquist DM, Knapka JJ, April M, Belcher CT, Clark MA, Hatcherson CD, Marriott BM, et al.
Molecular Physiology and Genetics Section, Gerontology Research Center, NIA, NIH, Baltimore, MD.

Juvenile (1 yr) and adult (3-5 yr) male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and juvenile (1-4 yr) and adult (5-10 yr) male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were fed a diet at or near ad libitum levels based on recommended caloric intake for age and body weight or fed 30% less of the same diet with this restriction gradually introduced over a 3-mo period. Analysis of body weights among these respective control and experimental groups from the first year of the study indicated that the monkeys undergoing dietary restriction were gaining weight at a markedly slower rate compared to control values. Actual food intake among diet-restricted groups had been reduced 22-24% below control levels. Periodic analysis of hematology and blood chemistry measurements over the first year of the study detected few significant differences between control and experimental groups to indicate that diet restriction was not detrimental to general health. When values obtained from hematology and blood chemistry measurements of juvenile and adult groups (control and experimental groups combined) were compared to ad libitum fed old monkeys from each species (greater than 18 yr for rhesus; greater than 10 yr for squirrel monkeys), many significant age differences were noted. Among the largest and most consistent findings in both species were age-related decreases in concentrations of lymphocytes, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and phosphates as well as the albumin/globulin ratio and the blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio. Age-related increases in serum globulin and creatinine concentrations were also found. These parameters as well as many others being implemented in the study will be monitored further to determine if diet restriction affects the rate of development as well as aging as observed in numerous rodent studies applying such nutritional manipulations.

 
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FASTING / LOW CALORIE PROGRAMS
on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
     
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
     
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
 
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
        Obesity
Diabetes
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Allergies
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
Infertility
Presbyacusis
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Radio-sensitivity
Apoptosis
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science
     

Vegetables
Fruits
Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Fish
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Legumes
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Mushrooms
Nuts and seeds
Alcohol
Coffee
Water
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Selenium
Flavonoids, carotenes
DHEA
Vitamin B
Carnitin
SAM
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
HGH
Gerovital
Melatonin
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Arthritis
Cancer
Depression
Diabetes
Hyperlipidemia
Hypertension
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Menopause
Muscle weakness
Osteoporosis
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
 
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Arthritis
Cancer
Depression
Diabetes
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Hyperlipidemia
Hypertension
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Osteoporosis
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
        Blood
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Brain
Heart & heart devices
Kidney
Liver
Lung
Pancreas
Spleen
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Stretching
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
 
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
     
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years


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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview
         
       

       
     
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