(clinical and experimental data)
Calorie restriction and skeletal mass in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): evidence for an effect mediated through changes in body size.
Energy restriction does not alter bone mineral metabolism or reproductive cycling and hormones in female rhesus monkeys.
Decreased bone formation and increased mineral dissolution during acute fasting in young women.
Effects of rhIGF-I administration on bone turnover during short-term fasting.


J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001 Mar;56(3):B98-107.
Calorie restriction and skeletal mass in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): evidence for an effect mediated through changes in body size.

Black A, Allison DB, Shapses SA, Tilmont EM, Handy AM, Ingram DK, Roth GS, Lane MA.
Molecular and Nutritional Physiology Unit, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

Little is known regarding the effects of prolonged calorie restriction (CR) on skeletal health. We investigated long-term (11 years) and short-term (12 months) effects of moderate CR on bone mass and biochemical indices of bone metabolism in male rhesus monkeys across a range of ages. A lower bone mass in long-term CR monkeys was accounted for by adjusting for age and body weight differences. A further analysis indicated that lean mass, but not fat mass, was a strong predictor of bone mass in both CR and control monkeys. No effect of short-term CR on bone mass was observed in older monkeys (mean age, 19 years), although young monkeys (4 years) subjected to short-term CR exhibited slower gains in total body bone density and content than age-matched controls. Neither biochemical markers of bone turnover nor hormonal regulators of bone metabolism were affected by long-term CR. Although osteocalcin concentrations were significantly lower in young restricted males after 1 month on 30% CR in the short-term study, they were no longer different from control values by 6 months on 30% CR.



J Nutr 2001 Mar;131(3):820-7.
Energy restriction does not alter bone mineral metabolism or reproductive cycling and hormones in female rhesus monkeys.

Lane MA, Black A, Handy AM, Shapses SA, Tilmont EM, Kiefer TL, Ingram DK, Roth GS.
Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Gerontology Research Center, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Energy restriction (ER) extends the life span and slows aging and age-related diseases in short-lived mammalian species. Although a wide variety of physiological systems have been studied using this paradigm, little is known regarding the effects of ER on skeletal health and reproductive aging. Studies in rhesus monkeys have reported that ER delays sexual and skeletal maturation in young male monkeys and reduces bone mass in adult males. No studies have examined the chronic effects on bone health and reproductive aging in female rhesus monkeys. The present cross-sectional study examined the effects of chronic (6 y) ER on skeletal and reproductive indices in 40 premenopausal and perimenopausal (7-27 y old) female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Although ER monkeys weighed less and had lower fat mass, ER did not alter bone mineral density, bone mineral content, osteocalcin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D or parathyroid hormone concentrations, menstrual cycling or reproductive hormone concentrations. Body weight and lean mass were significantly related to bone mineral density and bone mineral content at all skeletal sites (total body, lumbar spine, mid and distal radius; P: < or = 0.04). The number of total menstrual cycles over 2 y, as well as the percentage of normal-length cycles (24-31 d), was lower in older than in younger monkeys (P: < or = 0.05). Older monkeys also had lower estradiol (P: = 0.02) and higher follicle-stimulating hormone (P: = 0.02) concentrations than did younger monkeys. We conclude that ER does not negatively affect these indices of skeletal or reproductive health and does not alter age-associated changes in the same variables.



Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995 Dec;80(12):3628-33.
Decreased bone formation and increased mineral dissolution during acute fasting in young women.
Grinspoon SK; Baum HB; Kim V; Coggins C; Klibanski A.
AUTHOR AFFILIATION: Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA.

ABSTRACT: Severe chronic undernutrition is associated with decreased bone turnover and significant bone loss. However, little is known about the short-term effects of nutritional deprivation on bone turnover. To investigate the effects of short-term fasting on bone metabolism and the contribution of acidosis to these changes, 14 healthy women ages 18-26 (mean, 21 +/- 2 (SD years) were randomized to potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3, 2 meq/kg/day in divided doses) to prevent acidosis or control (potassium chloride, 25 meq/day) during a complete 4-day fast. Bone turnover was assessed using specific markers of formation [osteocalcin (OC) and Type I procollagen carboxyl-terminal propeptide (PICP)] and resorption [pyridinoline (PYRX) and deoxypyridinoline (DPYRX)]. Serum bicarbonate levels fell significantly from 27.0 +/- 3.2 to 17.3 +/- 2.6 mmol/L (P < 0.01) in the control group and were decreased compared to patients receiving KHCO3 [17.3 +/- 2.6 vs. 23.4 +/- 2.4 mmol/L, (P < 0.001)]. Serum total and ionized calcium increased significantly in the control group [9.1 +/- 0.1 to 9.4 +/- 0.2 mg/dL (P < 0.01) and 1.20 +/- 0.03 to 1.23 +/- 0.03 mmol/L (P < 0.05), respectively], but not in patients receiving KHCO3. In addition, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels decreased from 32 +/- 17 to 16 +/- 10 pg/mL (P < 0.05) and urinary calcium excretion increased [86 +/- 51 to 182 +/- 103 mg/day (P = 0.01)] in the control group, but not in patients receiving KHCO3. Serum osteocalcin (OC) and procollagen carboxyl-terminal propeptide (PICP) levels decreased significantly after 4 days of fasting from 9.1 +/- 3.4 to 5.5 +/- 4.2 ng/mL (P < 0.01) and 121 +/- 21 to 46 +/- 13 ng/mL (P = 0.0001) respectively in the patients receiving bicarbonate, and from 10.1 +/- 3.3 to 4.0 +/- 2.9 ng/mL (P < 0.01) and from 133 +/- 22 to 47 +/- 19 ng/mL (P < 0.001) respectively in the control group. The decrease in osteocalcin and PICP during fasting was comparable in both treatment groups. By contrast, urinary excretion of PYRX and DPYRX did not change significantly in either group with 4 days of fasting. These data are the first to demonstrate that markers of bone formation decline significantly with short-term fasting, independent of changes in acid-base status. By contrast, these data demonstrate a direct effect of acidosis in stimulating calcium release from bone during short-term fasting and suggest that acidosis may increase mineral dissolution independent of osteoclast activation and PTH in this experimental model of acute starvation. AAC comments: This paper give us a sound message that we have to implement alkaline, carbonate water intake during fasting days.

J Clin Invest 1995 Aug;96(2):900-6.
Effects of rhIGF-I administration on bone turnover during short-term fasting.
Grinspoon SK; Baum HB; Peterson S; Klibanski A.
Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA.

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a nutritionally dependent bone trophic hormone which stimulates osteoblast function and collagen synthesis in vivo and in vitro. We hypothesized that in the fasting state, IGF-I levels would decline significantly and would establish a model in which we could investigate the effects of IGF-I administration on bone turnover. We therefore studied 14 normal women ages 19-33 (mean, 24 +/- 4 [SD] years) during a complete 10-d fast. After 4 d of fasting, subjects were randomized to receive rhIGF-I or placebo subcutaneously twice a day for 6 d. Bone turnover was assessed using specific markers of formation (osteocalcin and type I procollagen carboxyl-terminal propeptide [PICP]) and resorption (pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline, type I collagen crosslinked N-telopeptide [N-telopeptide] and hydroxyproline). Serum levels of PICP and osteocalcin decreased from 143 +/- 52 to 60 +/- 28 ng/ml (P = 0.001) and from 7.6 +/- 5.4 to 4.2 +/- 3.1 ng/ml (P = 0.001) respectively with 4 d of fasting. Urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline decreased from 96 +/- 63 to 47 +/- 38 nmol/mmol creatinine (P < 0.05) and from 28 +/- 17 to 14 +/- 11 nmol/mmol creatinine (P < 0.05) respectively. Mean IGF-I levels decreased from 310 +/- 81 to 186 +/- 78 ng/ml (P = 0.001). In the second part of the experimental protocol, serum osteocalcin and PICP levels increased 5- and 3-fold, respectively with rhIGF-I administration and were significantly elevated compared with the placebo group at the end of treatment (20.9 +/- 17.3 vs. 5.9 +/- 6.4 ng/ml for osteocalcin [P < 0.05] and 188 +/- 45 vs. 110 +/- 37 ng/ml for PICP [P < 0.05]). In contrast, all four markers of bone resorption, including urinary pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline, N-telopeptide and hydroxyproline were unchanged with rhIGF-I administration. This report is the first to demonstrate that bone turnover falls rapidly with acute caloric deprivation in normal women. RhIGF-I administration uncouples bone formation in this setting by significantly increasing bone formation, but not resorption. These data suggest a novel use of rhIGF-I to selectively stimulate bone formation in states of undernutrition and low bone turnover.

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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