(clinical and experimental data)
Hypothesis on the role of nutritional factors in ocular hypertension and glaucoma.
Long-term nutrient intake and 5-year change in nuclear lens opacities.
Nutrition and retina.
Effect of religious fasting on intra-ocular pressure.


J Fr Ophtalmol. 2005 Mar;28(3):312-6.
[Hypothesis on the role of nutritional factors in ocular hypertension and glaucoma]. [Article in French].
Desmettre T, Rouland JF.
Centre d'Imagerie, Laser, et Readaptation Basse Vision, Lambersart.

Recent notions in connection with oxidative stress and the fat balance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) families have brought new insight to a probable role of nutritional factors in glaucoma and intraocular hypertony. The modifications of the extracellular matrix of the trabecula could be influenced by oxidative stress. On the one hand, collagen apoptosis and remodeling (associated with an increase in intraocular pressure) are mainly influenced by hydrosoluble antioxidants such as glutathione. On the other hand, elastin apoptosis and remodeling (correlated with the occurrence of optic atrophy) are particularly influenced by liposoluble antioxidants such as vitamin E. In addition, the dietary ratio of omega3/omega6PUFA intake could influence the balance of intraocular pressure. Omega-3 PUFA could influence cyclooxygenase competition. A diet with increased omega-3 and decreased omega-6 could thus favor an increase in intraocular pressure reducing synthesis of PG-F2, leading to a decrease in uveoscleral outflow. The true importance of these factors has not yet been solidly determined and studies are in progress to clarify the real implication of these nutritional factors.


Arch Ophthalmol. 2005 Apr;123(4):517-26.
Long-term nutrient intake and 5-year change in nuclear lens opacities.
Jacques PF, Taylor A, Moeller S, Hankinson SE, Rogers G, Tung W, Ludovico J, Willett WC, Chylack LT Jr.
Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, Mass, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To determine if usual nutrient intake is related to a 5-year change in the amount of lens nuclear opacification assessed by computer-assisted image analysis. DESIGN: A sample of 408 Boston, Mass-area women from the Nurses' Health Study aged 52 to 74 years at baseline participated in a 5-year study related to nutrition and vision. Usual nutrient intake was calculated as the average intake from 5 food frequency questionnaires that were collected over a 13- to 15-year period before the baseline evaluation of lens nuclear density. Duration of vitamin supplement use before baseline was determined from 7 questionnaires collected during this same period. We assessed the degree of nuclear density (opacification) using computer-assisted image analysis of digital lens images with amount of nuclear density measured as a function of average pixel gray scale, ranging from 0 (clear) to 255 (black). RESULTS: Median (range) baseline and follow-up nuclear densities were 44 (19 to 102) and 63 (32 to 213). The median (range) 5-year change in nuclear density was 18 (-29 to 134) and was positively correlated with the amount of opacification at baseline (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.35; P<.001). Geometric mean 5-year change in nuclear density was inversely associated with the intake of riboflavin (P trend = .03) and thiamin (P trend = .04) and duration of vitamin E supplement use (P trend = .006). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that long-term use of vitamin E supplements and higher riboflavin and/or thiamin intake may reduce the progression of age-related lens opacification.


Dev Ophthalmol. 2005;38:120-47.
Nutrition and retina.
Schmidt-Erfurth U.
Universitatsklinik der Augenheilkunde und Optometrie, Vienna, Austria.

The impact of nutrition on manifestation and progression of retinal diseases has become an important, controversial topic within recent years. The awareness of this topic in the general population has increased partially due strong commercial advertisements of supplements and diets. However, many potentially beneficial nutritional effects on retinal diseases have not been proven in prospective clinical trials. It is only for a few relatively rare diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa or gyrate atrophy, that adjustments in nutrition have been proven effective and widely accepted. However, for the majority of patients with retinal diseases the impact of nutritional factors is still insufficiently understood. Theoretically, supplementation of antioxidants could have a beneficial impact on a wide variety of retinal diseases or as a preventive measure by limiting the degree of oxidative damage. The only prospective, controlled, clinical trial providing proven benefit of antioxidant supplementation for a retinal disease is the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). Patients with at least intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were shown to have a significant benefit with regard to disease progression by supplementing with high-dose antioxidants and zinc. It is however unclear whether other antioxidants, such as lutein or zeaxanthin, may be better and whether a preventive supplementation is useful. Especially studies on patients with diabetic retinopathy have implicated an impact of higher cholesterol levels on the progression of the disease. High-fat diets have been overall associated to a number of retinal diseases. With the current knowledge it seems prudent to advise everyone a balanced, low-fat diet as well as vitamin supplementation within the recommended daily allowance. Smoking is an essential factor for oxidative stress, and its cessation should be recommended to everybody in order to prevent or slow down progression of retinal disease. High-dose antioxidant supplementation according to the AREDS trial should currently only be recommended to non-smokers with at least intermediate AMD. Based on results from experimental studies, further prospective clinical studies are warranted on the prevention and inhibition of disease progression in the most common retinal diseases by nutritional means.



Eye. 2002 Jul;16(4):463-5
Effect of religious fasting on intra-ocular pressure.
Dadeya S, Kamlesh, Shibal F, Khurana C, Khanna A.
Guru Nanak Eye Centre Maulana Azad Medical College New Delhi 110002, India.

AIM: The objective of this study was to find out the effect of religious fasting on intra-ocular pressure. METHODS: Intra-ocular pressure by applanation tonometer was measured four times a day in 38 healthy young adult male patients. The mean age of patients was 29 years. Body weight was measured to assess the extent of dehydration caused by fasting. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between the intra-ocular pressure during fasting and the non-fasting period (P < 0.001). There was weight loss ranging from 0.4 to 1.5 kg. CONCLUSION: Fasting alters the diurnal intra-ocular pressure in the study population, ie young males 22-38 years.

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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