(clinical and experimental data)
  Experimental studies
Dietary restriction at old age lowers mitochondrial oxygen radical production and leak at complex I and oxidative DNA damage in rat brain.
An HPLC tracing of the enhancer regulation in selected discrete brain areas of food-deprived rats.
Meal size and frequency affect neuronal plasticity and vulnerability to disease: cellular and molecular mechanisms.
Aging and caloric restriction in nonhuman primates: behavioral and in vivo brain imaging studies.
Caloric restriction inhibits seizure susceptibility in epileptic EL mice by reducing blood glucose.
Neuroprotective signaling and the aging brain: take away my food and let me run(1).
Effects of Age and Dietary Restriction on Lifespan and Oxidative Stress of SAMP8 Mice with Learning and Memory impairments.
Dietary restriction increases the number of newly generated neural cells, and induces BDNF __expression, in the dentate gyrus of rats.
Seizures decrease rapidly after fasting: preliminary studies of the ketogenic diet.
Effects of dietary restriction on radial-arm maze performance and flavor memory in aged rats.
Dietary restriction benefits learning and motor performance of aged mice.
  Clinical studies
Endocrine and metabolic effects of physiologic r-metHuLeptin administration during acute caloric deprivation in normal-weight women.
The short-term effects of fasting on the neuroendocrine system in patients with chronic pain syndromes.
Perspectives on the metabolic management of epilepsy through dietary reduction of glucose and elevation of ketone bodies.
Experimental studies
Brain disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases could be prevented by simply eating less, a British neuroscientist has claimed. Dr Mark Mattson, leading a scientific team in the US, found that rats fed on a low calorie diet are less affected by brain-destroying chemicals than those eating normally. It's well known that high food intake increases the risk of heart disease, diabetes and cancer, but Mattson said the findings are "the first to suggest that reduced calorie intake also may help shield the brain". In the study, reported in Annals of Neurology, one group of rats was fed 30% less food than the control group, and both were then treated with two different brain toxins. One toxin simulates brain damage found in people with Alzheimer's disease and those who've suffered a stroke. The other mimics the brain damage caused by Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. In both cases, the rats on the low-cal diet suffered much less brain damage, with fewer memory and motor skill deficits compared with that suffered by rats on a normal diet. Dr Arthur Everitt, founder of the Australian Association of Gerentology, said the findings are consistent with previous studies showing the health benefits of caloric restriction. "It's crazy for people to allow themselves to become overweight," he said.



J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2005 Apr;37(2):83-90.
Dietary restriction at old age lowers mitochondrial oxygen radical production and leak at complex I and oxidative DNA damage in rat brain.
Sanz A, Caro P, Ibanez J, Gomez J, Gredilla R, Barja G.
Department of Animal Physiology-II, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Complutense University, Madrid, 28040, Spain.

Previous studies in mammalian models indicate that the rate of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species ROS production and the ensuing modification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) link oxidative stress to aging rate. However, there is scarce information concerning this in relation to caloric restriction (CR) in the brain, an organ of maximum relevance for ageing. Furthermore, it has never been studied if CR started late in life can improve those oxidative stress-related parameters. In this investigation, rats were subjected during 1 year to 40% CR starting at 24 months of age. This protocol of CR significantly decreased the rate of mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production (by 24%) and oxidative damage to mtDNA (by 23%) in the brain below the level of both old and young ad libitum-fed animals. In agreement with the progressive character of aging, the rate of H(2)O(2) production of brain mitochondria stayed constant with age. Oxidative damage to nuclear DNA increased with age and this increase was fully reversed by CR to the level of the young controls. The decrease in ROS production induced by CR was localized at Complex I and occurred without changes in oxygen consumption. Instead, the efficiency of brain mitochondria to avoid electron leak to oxygen at Complex I was increased by CR. The mechanism involved in that increase in efficiency was related to the degree of electronic reduction of the Complex I generator. The results agree with the idea that CR decreases aging rate in part by lowering the rate of free radical generation of mitochondria in the brain.



Life Sci 2003 May 9;72(25):2923-30
An HPLC tracing of the enhancer regulation in selected discrete brain areas of food-deprived rats.
Miklya I, Knoll B, Knoll J.
Neuropsychopharmacological Research Unit of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 370, H-1445, Budapest, Hungary.

The recent discovery of the enhancer regulation in the mammalian brain brought a different perspective to the brain-organized realization of goal-oriented behavior, which is the quintessence of plastic behavioral descriptions such as drive or motivation. According to this new approach, 'drive' means that special endogenous enhancer substances enhance the impulse-propagation-mediated release of transmitters in a proper population of enhancer-sensitive neurons, and keep these neurons in the state of enhanced excitability until the goal is reached. However, to reach any goal needs the participation of the catecholaminergic machinery, the engine of the brain. We developed a method to detect the specific enhancer effect of synthetic enhancer substances [(-)-deprenyl, (-)-PPAP, (-)-BPAP] by measuring the release of transmitters from freshly isolated selected discrete brain areas (striatum, substantia nigra, tuberculum olfactorium, locus coeruleus, raphe) by the aid of HPLC with electrochemical detection. To test the validity of the working hypothesis that in any form of goal-seeking behavior the catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons work on a higher activity level, we compared the amount of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin released from selected discrete brain areas isolated from the brain of sated and food-deprived rats. Rats were deprived of food for 48 and 72 hours, respectively, and the state of excitability of their catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in comparison to that of sated rats was measured. We tested the orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats in a special open field, isolated thereafter selected discrete brain areas and measured the release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin from the proper tissue samples into the organ bath. The orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats increased proportionally to the time elapsed from the last feed and the amount of dopamine released from the striatum, substantia nigra and tuberculum olfactorium, that of norepinephrine released from the locus coeruleus and that of serotonin released from the raphe increased significantly in the hungry rats proportionally to the time of fasting. For example: the amount of dopamine released from the substantia nigra of sated rats (4.62 +/- 0.20 nmoles/g wet weight) increased to 5.95 +/- 0.37 (P < 0.05) and 10.67 +/- 0.44 (P < 0.01) in rats deprived of food for 48 and 72 hours, respectively.

J Neurochem. 2003 Feb;84(3):417-31
Meal size and frequency affect neuronal plasticity and vulnerability to disease: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

Mattson MP, Duan W, Guo Z.
Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Gerontology Research Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

Although all cells in the body require energy to survive and function properly, excessive calorie intake over long time periods can compromise cell function and promote disorders such as cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes and cancers. Accordingly, dietary restriction (DR; either caloric restriction or intermittent fasting, with maintained vitamin and mineral intake) can extend lifespan and can increase disease resistance. Recent studies have shown that DR can have profound effects on brain function and vulnerability to injury and disease. DR can protect neurons against degeneration in animal models of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases and stroke. Moreover, DR can stimulate the production of new neurons from stem cells (neurogenesis) and can enhance synaptic plasticity, which may increase the ability of the brain to resist aging and restore function following injury. Interestingly, increasing the time interval between meals can have beneficial effects on the brain and overall health of mice that are independent of cumulative calorie intake. The beneficial effects of DR, particularly those of intermittent fasting, appear to be the result of a cellular stress response that stimulates the production of proteins that enhance neuronal plasticity and resistance to oxidative and metabolic insults; they include neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), protein chaperones such as heat-shock proteins, and mitochondrial uncoupling proteins. Some beneficial effects of DR can be achieved by administering hormones that suppress appetite (leptin and ciliary neurotrophic factor) or by supplementing the diet with 2-deoxy-d-glucose, which may act as a calorie restriction mimetic. The profound influences of the quantity and timing of food intake on neuronal function and vulnerability to disease have revealed novel molecular and cellular mechanisms whereby diet affects the nervous system, and are leading to novel preventative and therapeutic approaches for neurodegenerative disorders.



Ann N Y Acad Sci 2001 Apr;928:316-26
Aging and caloric restriction in nonhuman primates: behavioral and in vivo brain imaging studies.

Ingram DK, Chefer S, Matochik J, Moscrip TD, Weed J, Roth GS, London ED, Lane MA.
Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

In a long-term longitudinal study of aging in rhesus monkeys, a primary objective has been to determine the effects of aging and caloric restriction (CR) on behavioral and neural parameters. Through the use of automated devices, locomotor activity can be monitored in the home cages of the monkeys. Studies completed thus far indicate a clear age-related decline in activity consistent with such observations in many other species, including humans. However, no consistent effects of CR on activity have been observed. Selected groups of monkeys have also been involved in brain imaging studies, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). MRI studies completed thus far reveal a clear age-related decline in the volumes of the basal ganglia, the putamen, and the caudate nucleus, with no change in total brain volume. PET analysis has revealed an age-related decline in the binding potential of dopamine D2 receptors in the same brain regions. These results are consistent with findings in humans. Although additional longitudinal analysis is needed to confirm the present results, it would appear that locomotor activity, volume of the basal ganglia, as well as dopamine D2 receptor binding potential provide reliable, noninvasive biomarkers of aging in rhesus monkeys.


Epilepsia 2001 Nov;42(11):1371-8
Caloric restriction inhibits seizure susceptibility in epileptic EL mice by reducing blood glucose.

Greene AE, Todorova MT, McGowan R, Seyfried TN.
Biology Department, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02167, USA.

Caloric restriction (CR) involves underfeeding and has long been recognized as a dietary therapy that improves health and increases longevity. In contrast to severe fasting or starvation, CR reduces total food intake without causing nutritional deficiencies. Although fasting has been recognized as an effective antiseizure therapy since the time of the ancient Greeks, the mechanism by which fasting inhibits seizures remains obscure. The influence of CR on seizure susceptibility was investigated at both juvenile (30 days) and adult (70 days) ages in the EL mouse, a genetic model of multifactorial idiopathic epilepsy. METHODS: The juvenile EL mice were separated into two groups and fed standard lab chow either ad libitum (control, n=18) or with a 15% CR diet (treated, n=17). The adult EL mice were separated into three groups; control (n=15), 15% CR (n=6), and 30% CR (n=3). Body weights, seizure susceptibility, and the levels of blood glucose and ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate) were measured over a 10-week treatment period. Simple linear regression and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze the relations among seizures, glucose, and ketones. RESULTS: CR delayed the onset and reduced the incidence of seizures at both juvenile and adult ages and was devoid of adverse side effects. Furthermore, mild CR (15%) had a greater antiepileptogenic effect than the well-established high-fat ketogenic diet in the juvenile mice. The CR-induced changes in blood glucose levels were predictive of both blood ketone levels and seizure susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that CR may reduce seizure susceptibility in EL mice by reducing brain glycolytic energy. Our preclinical findings suggest that CR may be an effective antiseizure dietary therapy for human seizure disorders.



Brain Res 2000 Dec 15;886(1-2):47-53
Neuroprotective signaling and the aging brain: take away my food and let me run(1).
Mattson MP.
Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Gerontology Research Center, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, 21224-6825, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Mattson MP (2000) indicate that Calorie restriction enhance anti-aging processes in brain. In particular he is writing: "Our recent studies have shown that dietary restriction (reduced calorie intake) can increase the resistance of neurons in the brain to dysfunction and death in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and stroke. The mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of dietary restriction involves stimulation of the _expression of 'stress proteins' and neurotrophic factors. Interestingly, dietary restriction also increases numbers of newly-generated neural cells in the adult brain suggesting that this dietary manipulation can increase the brain's capacity for plasticity and self-repair. Work in other laboratories suggests that physical and intellectual activity can similarly increase neurotrophic factor production and neurogenesis. Collectively, the available data suggest the that dietary restriction, and physical and mental activity, may reduce both the incidence and severity of neurodegenerative disorders in humans".

J Nutr Health Aging 2000;4(3):182-186
Effects of Age and Dietary Restriction on Lifespan and Oxidative Stress of SAMP8 Mice with Learning and Memory impairments.

Choi J, Kim D.
Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University; 599-1 Daeyeon-Dong, Nam-Gu, Pusan 608-737, Korea.

This study was to evaluate the effect of dietary restriction (DR) on lifespan and oxidative stress of dementia mouse model SAMP8 with impaired learning and memory. SAMP8 female mice were fed either ad libitum (AL) or fed 60% of food intake of AL. Results showed that basal metabolic rates (BMR) were significantly lower (15 to 22%) in DR with increased median and maximum lifespans, suggesting feed and gross efficiencies were significantly lower in DR than in AL. Grading score of senescence resulted in a marked improvement about 2-fold by DR compared with AL. The amounts of lipofuscin at 12 months were significantly lowered 16% in DR than that of AL. Median and maximal lifespans significantly increased (28.5% and 16.4%, respectively) by DR, and also lowered superoxide radical about 15~45% in DR compared with AL at 4, 8 and 12 months of age. On the other hand, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were higher (about 15~30%) in DR than those in AL group of SAMP8 except for 4 months of age. Our results suggest that 40% calorie restricted SAMP8 can effectively suppress dementia-related abnormalities during aging.


J Mol Neurosci 2000 Oct;15(2):99-108
Dietary restriction increases the number of newly generated neural cells, and induces BDNF __expression, in the dentate gyrus of rats.

Lee J, Duan W, Long JM, Ingram DK, Mattson MP.
Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

The adult brain contains neural stem cells that are capable of proliferating, differentiating into neurons or glia, and then either surviving or dying. This process of neural-cell production (neurogenesis) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is responsive to brain injury, and both mental and physical activity. We now report that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus can also be modified by diet. Previous studies have shown that dietary restriction (DR) can suppress age-related deficits in learning and memory, and can increase resistance of neurons to degeneration in experimental models of neurodegenerative disorders. We found that maintenance of adult rats on a DR regimen results in a significant increase in the numbers of newly produced neural cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, as determined by stereologic analysis of cells labeled with the DNA precursor analog bromodeoxyuridine. The increase in neurogenesis in rats maintained on DR appears to result from decreased death of newly produced cells, rather than from increased cell proliferation. We further show that the __expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a trophic factor recently associated with neurogenesis, is increased in hippocampal cells of rats maintained on DR. Our data are the first evidence that diet can affect the process of neurogenesis, as well as the first evidence that diet can affect neurotrophic factor production. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms whereby diet impacts on brain plasticity, aging and neurodegenerative disorders.



Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999 Sep;153(9):946-9
Seizures decrease rapidly after fasting: preliminary studies of the ketogenic diet.

Freeman JM, Vining EP.
Pediatric Epilepsy Center, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the change in atonic or myoclonic seizures associated with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome during the initiation of the ketogenic diet, and to describe the development of a blinded crossover study of the efficacy of the ketogenic diet. DESIGN: A before-after trial. SETTING: The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Md. PATIENTS: Change in clinical seizure frequency was examined in 17 consecutively treated patients with atonic or myoclonic seizures. In a few patients, a 24-hour ambulatory electroencephalogram was obtained before and after diet initiation. We demonstrated the ability to manipulate the ketosis induced by fasting with the addition of glucose (dextrose) in 1 patient. INTERVENTIONS: Children fasted for 36 hours, and the diet was gradually introduced over 3 days. Parents were instructed to keep a baseline seizure frequency calendar for the month before the initiation of the diet. These calendars continued to be maintained as the diet was initiated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Seizure decrease from baseline. RESULTS: The atonic or myoclonic seizures decreased in these children by more than 50% immediately. Using a 24-hour ambulatory electroencephalogram, we documented that the seizures reported by a parent represent only a fraction of the electroclinical events; the technique could be used to measure the profound decrease in electrically documented seizures. Ketosis was eliminated with glucose, 60 g/d. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to evaluate the ketogenic diet's efficacy in atonic or myoclonic seizures in a blinded, crossover study. The diet can be manipulated on a short-term basis in a blinded manner, and ketosis can be achieved or eliminated.



Neurobiol Aging 1989 Jan-Feb;10(1):27-30
Effects of dietary restriction on radial-arm maze performance and flavor memory in aged rats.

Bond NW, Everitt AV, Walton J.
School of Behavioural Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Two groups of aged rats, a dietary restricted group fed approximately 10 g per day from 6 weeks of age and a group fed ad lib throughout their life span, were compared with a young adult group on an 8-arm radial maze and a flavor memory task. The young adult displayed efficient performance on the radial-arm maze within the 15 day test period. In contrast, both aged groups exhibited significantly poorer performance in the maze in comparison with the young adult group neither aged group differed from chance at the end of the 15 days. The flavor memory task required the animals to consume a novel flavor. Their loss of neophobia, as indexed by their subsequent consumption, was then taken as an indication of the extent to which they remembered the novel flavor and its effects. The young adult group lost their neophobia more rapidly than either of the aged groups, which did not appear to differ from each other. Taken together, this pattern of results indicates that dietary restriction does not protect animals from the memory loss observed in aged animals.



J Gerontol 1987 Jan;42(1):78-81
Dietary restriction benefits learning and motor performance of aged mice.

Ingram DK, Weindruch R, Spangler EL, Freeman JR, Walford RL.

Female C3B10RF1 mice maintained on either a control (approximately 95 kcal/week) or restricted (approximately 55 kcal/week) diet since weaning were tested in a behavioral battery at 11 to 15 or 31 to 35 months of age (middle-aged vs. aged). Age-related declines observed among control groups in tests of motor coordination (rotorod) and learning (complex maze) were prevented by the restriction regime. In addition, diet restriction increased locomotor activity in a runwheel cage among mice of both ages but did not affect exploratory activity in a novel arena.

Clinical studies


J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5402-9.
Endocrine and metabolic effects of physiologic r-metHuLeptin administration during acute caloric deprivation in normal-weight women.

Schurgin S, Canavan B, Koutkia P, Depaoli AM, Grinspoon S.
Program in Nutritional Metabolism, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, LON 207, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

Leptin is a nutritionally regulated hormone that may modulate neuroendocrine function during caloric deficit. We hypothesized that administration of low-dose leptin would prevent changes in neuroendocrine function resulting from short-term caloric restriction. We administered physiologic doses of r-metHuLeptin [(0.05 mg/kg sc daily or identical placebo in divided doses (0800, 1400, 2000, and 0200 h)] to 17 healthy, normal-weight, reproductive-aged women during a 4-d fast. Leptin levels were lower in the placebo-treated group during fasting (3.3 +/- 0.2 vs. 9.6 +/- 1.0 ng/ml, P < 0.001, placebo vs. leptin-treated at end of study). Fat mass decreased more in the leptin than the placebo-treated group (-0.6 +/- 0.1 vs. -0.2 +/- 0.1 kg, P = 0.03). Both overnight LH area (38.9 +/- 21.5 vs. 1.2 +/- 11.1 microIU/ml.min, P = 0.05) and LH peak width increased (15.8 +/- 7.1 vs. -2.3 +/- 6.7 min, P = 0.06) and LH pulsatility decreased (-2.0 +/- 0.9 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.8 peaks/12 h, P = 0.03) more in the leptin vs. placebo group. LH pulse regularity was higher in the leptin-treated group (P = 0.02). Twenty-four-hour mean TSH decreased more in the placebo than the leptin-treated group, respectively (-1.06 +/- 0.27 vs. -0.32 +/- 0.18 microIU/ml, P = 0.03). No differences in 24-h mean GH, cortisol, IGF binding protein-1, and IGF-I were observed between the groups. Hunger was inversely related to leptin levels in the subjects randomized to leptin (r = -0.76, P = 0.03) but not placebo (r = -0.18, P = 0.70) at the end of the study. Diminished hunger was seen among subjects achieving the highest leptin levels. Our data provide new evidence of the important role of physiologic leptin regulation in the neuroendocrine response to acute caloric deprivation.



Nutr Neurosci. 2003 Feb;6(1):11-8
The short-term effects of fasting on the neuroendocrine system in patients with chronic pain syndromes.

Michalsen A, Schneider S, Rodenbeck A, Ludtke R, Huether G, Dobos GJ.
Department of Internal Medicine V and Integrative Medicine, Kliniken Essen Mitte, Am Deimelsberg 34 a, 45276 Essen, Germany.

It is commonly reported that short term fasting leads to mood enhancement and emotional harmonisation. We investigated psychosocial well-being and the neuroendocrine response, assessed by nightly urinary excretion of cortisol and catecholamines, in 28 inpatients with chronic pain syndromes during and after a one-week modified fast. Twenty-two of the patients (51.4 +/- 2.7 years, BMI 26.8 +/- 1.0 kg/m2) participated in a 7-day fast with daily intake of 300 kcal/day, six control patients (47.5 +/- 4.0 years; BMI 22.9 +/- 1.1 kg/m2) received a vegetarian-based diet. With fasting significant increases of the urinary concentration of noradrenaline (17.8 +/- 3.0-27.8 +/- 3.8 microg/ml), adrenaline (1.5 +/- 0.2-3.4 +/- 0.7 microg/ml) and cortisol (26.1 +/- 3.7-40.7 +/- 6.1 microg/ml) were observed, whereas controls showed no significant endocrine changes. The neuroendocrine response to fasting was pronounced in younger subjects (age <50 years) and in the presence of a BMI >25 kg/m2, moreover the increase in cortisol excretion was significantly higher in subjects with lower baseline cortisol levels. Mood and well-being increased non-significantly in both groups. Fasting was well tolerated, and regarded as beneficial by most fasting patients. Our results show that short-term fasting leads to neuroendocrine activation and may suggest that the extent of this response is dependent on the individual metabolic and endocrine state at baseline.

J Neurochem. 2003 Aug;86(3):529-37
Perspectives on the metabolic management of epilepsy through dietary reduction of glucose and elevation of ketone bodies.

Greene AE, Todorova MT, Seyfried TN.
Boston College Biology Department, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA.

Brain cells are metabolically flexible because they can derive energy from both glucose and ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate). Metabolic control theory applies principles of bioenergetics and genome flexibility to the management of complex phenotypic traits. Epilepsy is a complex brain disorder involving excessive, synchronous, abnormal electrical firing patterns of neurons. We propose that many epilepsies with varied etiologies may ultimately involve disruptions of brain energy homeostasis and are potentially manageable through principles of metabolic control theory. This control involves moderate shifts in the availability of brain energy metabolites (glucose and ketone bodies) that alter energy metabolism through glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, respectively. These shifts produce adjustments in gene-linked metabolic networks that manage or control the seizure disorder despite the continued presence of the inherited or acquired factors responsible for the epilepsy. This hypothesis is supported by information on the management of seizures with diets including fasting, the ketogenic diet and caloric restriction. A better understanding of the compensatory genetic and neurochemical networks of brain energy metabolism may produce novel antiepileptic therapies that are more effective and biologically friendly than those currently available.

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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