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PERIODICAL FASTING AND CALORIC RESTRICTION FOR LIFE EXTENSION, DISEASE TREATMENT AND CREATIVITY.
(clinical and experimental data)

 
 3.2 FASTING AND CALORIC RESTRICTION PREVENT AND CURE DISEASES (Evidence) 
   
 
  OBESITY  
   
 
Behavior and lifestyle: approaches to treatment of obesity.
The pathophysiology of obesity.
Influence of short-term dietary weight loss on cortisol secretion and metabolism in obese men.
Effect of a very low calorie diet on the diagnostic category of individuals with binge eating disorder.
Very-low-calorie diets and sustained weight loss.
Treatment of extreme obesity with a very low calorie diet.
Long-term efficacy of dietary treatment of obesity: a systematic review of studies published between 1931 and 1999.
Treatment of diabetes in patients with severe obesity.
VLCD a safe and simple treatment of obesity (A review).
Predictors of long-term weight reduction in obese patients after initial very-low-calorie diet.
Long-term weight maintenance after an intensive weight-loss program.
Racial differences in metabolic predictors of obesity among postmenopausal women.
Obesity wars: a pilot study of very low calorie diets in obese patients in general practice.
VLCD versus LCD in long-term treatment of obesity.
Very low-calorie diets.
 
   
   

2005

J La State Med Soc. 2005 Jan;157 Spec No 1:S50-5.
Behavior and lifestyle: approaches to treatment of obesity.
Williamson DA, Stewart TM.
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults and children demonstrates a steadily growing epidemic. This rising rate of obesity is associated with obesity related comorbidities including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, some cancers, joint disease, and particularly, type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss (5% to 10% of total body weight) through lifestyle intervention approaches has been found to have a beneficial effect on comorbid conditions, particularly hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Effective behavioral treatment of obesity involves modification of eating and physical activity patterns to yield negative energy balance. Research studies have found that interventions that combine a low-calorie diet, increased physical activity, and behavior therapy are most effective for weight loss and maintenance. Furthermore, extended length of treatment contact, weight loss satisfaction, and social support may promote positive long-term outcomes in obese adults and children.

   
   

2004

Gac Med Mex. 2004 Jul-Aug;140 Suppl 2:S27-32.
[The pathophysiology of obesity].
[Article in Spanish].

Johnstone AM, Faber P, Andrew R, Gibney ER, Elia M, Lobley G, Stubbs RJ, Walker BR.
Departamento de Endocrinologia y metabolismo, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubirin, Vasco de Quiroga 15 Seccion XVI Tlalpan C.P. 14000, Mexico, DF.

Obesity is a multi-cause syndrome. Overfeeding and low exercise produces excess of body fat. There are individual and population differences in energy balance, (ethnical, diet behavior, longer life expectancies). Genetic factors may influence the setting of obesity, but the calorie intake, physical activity, and lifestyle are critical determinants. As a consequence of the complex mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this syndrome and its complications, each model used in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach are partial. New evidences on the genetic and neuroendocrine factors in obesity are emerging, however, a holistic model is needed to understand this syndrome where biologic, psychological and social factors act together in a very intricate way. Using this model, better understanding in prevention and treatment is expected.

   
   

Eur J Endocrinol. 2004 Feb;150(2):185-94.
Influence of short-term dietary weight loss on cortisol secretion and metabolism in obese men.

Johnstone AM, Faber P, Andrew R, Gibney ER, Elia M, Lobley G, Stubbs RJ, Walker BR.
Rowett Research Institute, Greenburn Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK.

OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with increased inactivation of cortisol by hepatic A-ring 5alpha- and 5beta-reductases, impaired hepatic regeneration of cortisol from cortisone by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11HSD1), but increased subcutaneous adipose 11HSD1 activity enhancing local cortisol levels in fat. Cause and effect between obesity and abnormal cortisol metabolism is untested. DESIGN: Acute weight loss was induced by very low calorie diet (VLCD) or starvation in obese men. METHODS: Otherwise healthy males (aged 20-55 years; body mass index (BMI) 30-40 kg/m2) were studied after 6 days on a weight maintenance diet; then after either 6 days of starvation (n=6) or 3 weeks of VLCD (2.55 MJ; n=6); then after 1 week of weight maintenance; and finally after 2 weeks of being allowed to feed ad libitum. Plasma samples were obtained from indwelling cannulae at 0930 h and 1815 h and a 24 h urine collection was completed for analysis of cortisol metabolites by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Data are mean+/-S.E.M. BMI fell (kg/m3) from 34.8+/-0.8 at baseline to 31.8+/-1.4 on VLCD and 32.7+/-1.1 on starvation. Starvation caused a rise in plasma cortisol (at 0930 h from 143+/-17 to 216+/-11 nM, P<0.001) but no change in total urinary cortisol metabolites. VLCD did not alter plasma cortisol and markedly reduced cortisol metabolite excretion (from 15.8+/-1.1 mg/day at baseline to 7.0+/-1.1 mg/day, P<0.001). Relative excretion of 5alpha-reduced cortisol metabolites fell on both diets, but there were no changes in cortisol/cortisone metabolite ratios reflecting 11HSD activities. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss with VLCD in obesity reverses up-regulation of hepatic A-ring reductases and normalises cortisol production rate; in contrast, starvation produces acute stress and further activation of cortisol secretion. We suggest that activation of cortisol secretion is not an irreversible intrinsic abnormality in obese patients, and speculate that dietary content has an important influence on the neuroendocrine response to weight loss.

   
   

2002

Int J Eat Disord 2002 Jan;31(1):49-56
Effect of a very low calorie diet on the diagnostic category of individuals with binge eating disorder.

Raymond NC, de Zwaan M, Mitchell JE, Ackard D, Thuras P.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the factors associated with the diagnostic outcome of obese individuals with and without binge eating disorder (BED) 1 year after completing a very low calorie diet (VLCD) program. METHOD: Participants included 63 individuals with BED, 36 individuals with subthreshold BED, and 29 individuals with no binge eating symptoms. Diagnoses before and after VLCD were obtained using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) interviews. The severity of psychiatric symptoms were assessed using various rating scales. RESULTS: Fifty-six percent (n = 36) of the participants who met criteria for BED at baseline did not meet diagnostic criteria 1 year later. None of the baseline factors were statistically associated with outcome. DISCUSSION: Although the main hypothesis was not supported, absence of a BED diagnosis at 12-month follow-up after a VLCD diet appears to be associated with less weight gain at 1-year follow-up regardless of baseline diagnosis. Copyright 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Obes Res 2001 Nov;9 Suppl 4:295S-301S Very-low-calorie diets and sustained weight loss. (A review) Saris WH. Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institue Maastricht, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. To review of the literature on the topic of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) and the long-term weight-maintenance success in the treatment of obesity. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A literature search of the following keywords: VLCD, long-term weight maintenance, and dietary treatment of obesity. RESULTS: VLCDs and low-calorie diets with an average intake between 400 and 800 kcal do not differ in body weight loss. Nine randomized control trials, including VLCD treatment with long-term weight maintenance, show a large variation in the initial weight loss regain percentage, which ranged from -7% to 122% at the 1-year follow-up to 26% to 121% at the 5-year follow-up. There is evidence that a greater initial weight loss using VLCDs with an active follow-up weight-maintenance program, including behavior therapy, nutritional education and exercise, improves weight maintenance. CONCLUSIONS: VLCD with active follow-up treatment seems to be one of the better treatment modalities related to long-term weight-maintenance success.

 
   
   

2001

Obes Res. 2001 Nov;9 Suppl 4:295S-301S
Very-low-calorie diets and sustained weight loss.
Saris WH.
Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institue Maastricht, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.

OBJECTIVE: To review of the literature on the topic of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) and the long-term weight-maintenance success in the treatment of obesity. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A literature search of the following keywords: VLCD, long-term weight maintenance, and dietary treatment of obesity. RESULTS: VLCDs and low-calorie diets with an average intake between 400 and 800 kcal do not differ in body weight loss. Nine randomized control trials, including VLCD treatment with long-term weight maintenance, show a large variation in the initial weight loss regain percentage, which ranged from -7% to 122% at the 1-year follow-up to 26% to 121% at the 5-year follow-up. There is evidence that a greater initial weight loss using VLCDs with an active follow-up weight-maintenance program, including behavior therapy, nutritional education and exercise, improves weight maintenance. CONCLUSIONS: VLCD with active follow-up treatment seems to be one of the better treatment modalities related to long-term weight-maintenance success.

   
   
Med Pregl 2001 Nov-Dec;54(11-12):534-8
Treatment of extreme obesity with a very low calorie diet.

Ivkovic-Lazar T.
Klinika za endokrinologiju, dijabetes i bolesti metabolizma, Institut za interne bolesti, Klinicki centar, Novi Sad.

This paper presents the results of treatment of very obese persons with a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 28 extremely obese subjects, average age 32 years, was treated in the course of one month by the following regime: 3-4 l of mineral water with "Enemon" pulv. 3 x 1 and vitamin substitution and allopurinol 300 mg/day. RESULTS: In addition to a statistically significant (p < 0.5) loss of body mass, significant changes were observed in regard to decrease of atherogenic lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, apoprotein B), as well as lowered level of hyperinsulinism which, though, was not statistically significant. The degree of protein catabolism did not reach statistical significance, and the results were also more favourable with respect to potential changes in electrolytes, as well as with respect to the degree of hyperuricemia in regard to subjects being under the regime of total starvation. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: VLCD represents an extremely efficient and safe therapeutic procedure which, apart from body mass loss, is characterized by favourable changes in metabolism of lipids and a decrease in hyperinsulinism, which eventually results in reduction of the risk from early and accelerated atherosclerosis.

   
   

2000

Obes Rev. 2000 Oct;1(2):113-9
Long-term efficacy of dietary treatment of obesity: a systematic review of studies published between 1931 and 1999.
Ayyad C, Andersen T.
Roskilde County Hospital, DK-4000, Roskilde, Denmark.

METHODS: MEDLINE surveys were carried out and reference lists were cross-checked to identify publications on long-term outcome for dietary treatment of obesity. 898 papers were identified, 17 fulfilled our planned criteria for inclusion (dietary treatment; adults; follow-up period > or = 3 years; follow-up rate > or = 50% of original study group; information on one of the success criteria: maintenance of all weight initially lost (or further weight reduction) or maintenance of at least nine to 11 kg of initial weight loss; obesity complications of the patient group not over-represented; English, German or Scandinavian languages). RESULTS: The 17 included publications (here of three publications on randomized clinical trials with control group relevant for this review) reported on 21 study groups, comprising 3030 patients. Of these 2131 (70%) were followed-up for 3-14 years (median 5 years). Mean initial weight loss ranged from four to 28 kg (median 11 kg). Overall, 15% (median, range 0-49%) of followed-up patients fulfilled one of the criteria for success. Overall, success rates seemed stable for up to 14 years of observation. Diet combined with group therapy lead to better long-term success rates (median 27%) than did diet alone (median 15%) or diet combined with behaviour modification (median 14%). Active follow-up was generally associated with better success rates than was passive follow-up (19% vs. 10%). Conventional diet seemed to be most efficacious in addition with group therapy, whereas VLCD apparently was most efficacious if combined with behaviour modification and active follow-up. CONCLUSION: The literature on long-term follow-up of dietary treatment of obesity, although limited and inhomogeneous, points to an overall median success rate of 15% and a possible adjuvant effect of group therapy, behaviour modification and active follow-up.

   
   
Biomed Pharmacother 2000 Mar;54(2):74-9
Treatment of diabetes in patients with severe obesity.

Scheen AJ.
Department of Medicine, CHU Sart Tilman (B35), Liege 1, Belgium.

ABSTRACT: Besides genetic predisposition, obesity is the most important risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus, and weight reduction has been shown to markedly improve blood glucose control in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Therapeutic strategies for the obese diabetic patient include: 1) promoting weight loss through lifestyle modifications (hypocaloric diet and exercise) and anti-obesity drugs (orlistat, sibutramine, etc.); 2) improving blood glucose control, essentially through the reduction of insulin resistance (metformin, eventually thiazolidinediones) or insulin need (alpha-glucosidase inhibitors) and, at a later stage, the correction of defective insulin secretion (sulphonylureas, repaglinide) or low circulating insulin levels (exogenous insulin); and 3) treating common associated risk factors, such as arterial hypertension and dyslipidaemias, to improve cardiovascular prognosis. When morbid obesity is present, both restoring a good glycemic control and correcting associated risk factors can only be obtained through marked and sustained weight loss. This primary objective justifies more aggressive weight reduction programmes, including very low-calorie diets and bariatric surgery, but only within a multidisciplinary approach and in well-selected patients .

   
   
Lakartidningen 2000 Sep 6;97(36):3876-9
VLCD a safe and simple treatment of obesity (A review).

Rossner S, Torgerson JS.
Article in Swedish Huddinge Universitetssjukhus.

This review summarizes Swedish experience with VLCD (Very Low Calorie Diets). VLCD-treatment is a safe and relatively simple way to induce weight reduction in obese patients. The rapid and profound initial weight loss reduces cardiovascular risk factors and relieves obesity-associated symptoms. Weight loss on the order of 20-25 kg is common after 12-16 weeks of treatment. The long-term results, about 10% weight reduction after two years, are similar to what can be expected with pharmacological treatment. VLCD's should be incorporated into long-term treatment programs including diet, physical exercise and lifestyle modification. A team of nurses and/or dieticians can, to a large extent, manage a VLCD-program, restricting the need for involvement of the physician.

   
   

1999

Adv Ther 1999 Nov-Dec;16(6):285-9
Predictors of long-term weight reduction in obese patients after initial very-low-calorie diet.
Hoie LH, Bruusgaard D. Norsk Legesenter, Oslo, Norway.

This prospective interventional study assessed possible predictors of long-term weight loss and compared them with factors previously identified as predicting short-term variations in weight reduction after initial treatment with a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Eighty-two overweight patients with a body mass index of at least 27 kg/m2 were recruited from primary health-care settings into a structured weight-reduction and maintenance program. All patients used the VLCD for 8 weeks and were followed up 13.2 months later. Mean body weight decreased an average of 13.3 kg during the 8-week treatment and was still 8.6 kg below pretreatment levels after 13.2 months. Triglyceride levels were also significantly reduced. Sex, baseline weight, baseline body mass index, and age predicted 37% of the variation in short-term weight loss but had no long-term predictive value.

   
   
J Am Coll Nutr 1999 Dec;18(6):620-7
Long-term weight maintenance after an intensive weight-loss program.

Anderson JW, Vichitbandra S, Qian W, Kryscio RJ.
VA Medical Center and University of Kentucky (HMR) Weight Management Program, Lexington, USA.

This prospective study assessed long-term weight maintenance of patients completing an intensive very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) weight-loss program. SUBJECTS: Individuals who had completed the 12-week core education program and lost > or = 10 kg were recruited. RESULTS: Of 154 eligible subjects, follow-up weights were obtained at > or = 2 years in 112 subjects (72.7%, 72 women, 40 men). Subjects had an average initial body mass index of 37.3 kg/m2 and an average weight loss of 29.7 kg in five months. Six hundred and forty-five follow-up weights (median, five per subject) were obtained over two to seven years of follow-up from clinic visits (70%) and self-report by telephone or mail (30%). Subjects regained an average of 2.5% per month of their lost weight during the first two to three years of follow-up; however, their weight stabilized over the next four years. Subjects regained an average of 73.4% of their weight loss during the first three years. The average weight loss maintained for 112 subjects was 22.8% of initial weight loss after an average of 5.3 years of follow-up. When successful weight maintenance was defined as maintaining a weight loss of 5% or 10% of initial (pre-treatment) body weight, 40% were maintaining a 5% weight loss at five years and 25% were maintaining a weight loss of 10% at 7 years. Multiple regression analyses suggested that age had a significant (p=0.004) and positive effect on weight maintenance. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that weight maintenance after an intensive VLCD program is improving but still needs intensive efforts to enable most individuals to maintain a substantial percentage of their weight loss long-term.

   
   
Obes Res 1999 Sep;7(5):463-8
Racial differences in metabolic predictors of obesity among postmenopausal women.

Nicklas BJ, Berman DM, Davis DC, Dobrovolny CL, Dennis KE.
Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore V.A. Medical Center, 21201, USA.

This study determined whether there are racial differences in resting metabolic rate (RMR), fat oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in obese [body mass index (BMI = 34+/-2 kg/m2)], postmenopausal (58+/-2 years) women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Twenty black and 20 white women were matched for fat mass and lean mass (LM), as determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. RMR and fat oxidation were measured by indirect calorimetry in the early morning after a 12-hour fast using the ventilated hood technique. VO2max was measured on a treadmill during a progressive exercise test to voluntary exhaustion. RESULTS: RMR, adjusted for differences in LM, was 5% higher in white than black women (1566+/-27 and 1490+/-26 kcal/day, respectively; p<0.05); and fat oxidation rate was 17% higher in white than black women (87+/-4 and 72+/-3 g/day, respectively; p<0.01). VO2max (L/minute) was 150 mL per minute (8%) higher (p<0.05) in white than black women. VO2max correlated with LM in black (r=0.44, p=0.05) and white (r=0.53, p<0.05) women, but the intercept of the regression line was higher in white than black women (p<0.05), with no significant difference in slopes. In a multiple regression model including race, body weight, LM, and age, LM was the only independent predictor of RMR (r2 = 0.46, p<0.0001), whereas race was the only independent predictor of fat oxidation (r2 = 0.18, p<0.05). The best predictors of VO2max were LM (r2 = 0.22, p<0.05) and race (cumulative r2 = 0.30, p<0.05). DISCUSSION: These results show there are racial differences in metabolic predictors of obesity. Determination of whether these ethnic differences lead to, or are an effect of, obesity status or other lifestyle factors requires further study.

 
   
   

1998

Br J Gen Pract 1998 May;48(430):1251-2
Obesity wars: a pilot study of very low calorie diets in obese patients in general practice.
Molokhia M.
St George's Hospital Medical School Department of General Practice and Primary Care, London.

In this study we aimed to determine whether very low calorie diets (VLCDs) can be an effective means of weight reduction in obese patients in general practice. Twenty-six patients showed a mean reduction in weight of 15 kg and in body mass index (BMI) of 6.1% within a 12-month period. VLCDs with regular monitoring and feedback were shown to be effective in reducing and maintaining weight loss for up to a year with no reported serious side effects.

   
   

1997

Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997 Jan;21(1):22-6
VLCD versus LCD in long-term treatment of obesity.
Rossner S, Flaten H.
Obesity Unit, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term effects of three different programs including initial 6 weeks (V)LCD diets 420 kcal/d, 530 kcal/d, 880 kcal/d) on sustained weight loss, attrition and obesity associated conventional cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical 52 weeks trial. Two weeks of a booster (V)LCD period after week 26. SETTING: University outpatient obesity clinic. SUBJECTS: Ninety-three middle-aged obese patients (30 men), initial mean BMI 38.7 kg/m2, age 20-65 y, from the waiting list. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weight loss pattern, attrition, reported side effects, blood pressure, blood glucose and serum lipid levels. Repeated frequent measurements up to week 26, intermittently up to final measurements at week 52. RESULTS: One year attrition (30-45%), sustained weight loss (8-15% of initial body weight) and changes in obesity associated risk parameters were similar in all three group. Fewer adverse events were reported in the LCD group. CONCLUSION: The results compare favorably with most previous reports of similar design. VLCD (420 kcal or 530 kcal/ d and LCD 880 kcal/d) were equally effective in long term treatment of obesity. The tendency to less side effects with LCD suggests that such preparations deserve further attention.

   
   

1993

JAMA 1993 Aug 25;270(8):967-74
Very low-calorie diets.
National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity, National Institutes of Health.

To provide an overview of the published scientific information on the safety and efficacy of very low-calorie diets (VLCDs) and to provide rational recommendations for their use. DATA SOURCES AND EXTRACTION--Original reports obtained through a MEDLINE search for 1966 through 1992 on VLCDs or reducing diets plus obesity, supplemented by a manual search of bibliographies and the opinions of experts in the field of nutrition and weight loss therapy for obesity. Only studies of humans were cited. DATA SYNTHESIS--Current VLCDs are usually provided in the context of comprehensive treatment programs, during which usual food intake is completely replaced by specific foods or liquid formulas containing 3350 kJ/d (800 kcal/d) or less. Weight loss on VLCDs averages 1.5 to 2.5 kg/wk; total loss after 12 to 16 weeks averages 20 kg. These results are superior to standard low-calorie diets of 5020 kJ/d (1200 kcal/d), which lead to weight losses of 0.4 to 0.5 kg/wk and an average total loss of only 6 to 8 kg. There is little evidence that intakes of less than 3350 kJ/d (800 kcal/d) result in better weight losses than 3350 kJ. Intake of at least 1 g/kg of ideal body weight per day of protein of high biologic value appears to be important in helping to preserve lean body mass. Serious complications of modern VLCDs are unusual, cholelithiasis being most common. CONCLUSIONS--Current VLCDs are generally safe when used under proper medical supervision in moderately and severely obese patients (body mass index [weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared] > 30) and are usually effective in promoting significant short-term weight loss, with concomitant improvement in obesity-related conditions. Long-term maintenance of weight lost with VLCDs is not very satisfactory and is no better than with other forms of obesity treatment. Incorporation of behavioral therapy and physical activity in VLCD treatment programs seems to improve maintenance.

 
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FASTING / LOW CALORIE PROGRAMS
on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
     
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
     
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
 
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
        Obesity
Diabetes
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Allergies
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
Infertility
Presbyacusis
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Radio-sensitivity
Apoptosis
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science
     

Vegetables
Fruits
Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Fish
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Legumes
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Mushrooms
Nuts and seeds
Alcohol
Coffee
Water
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Selenium
Flavonoids, carotenes
DHEA
Vitamin B
Carnitin
SAM
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
HGH
Gerovital
Melatonin
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Arthritis
Cancer
Depression
Diabetes
Hyperlipidemia
Hypertension
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Menopause
Muscle weakness
Osteoporosis
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
 
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Arthritis
Cancer
Depression
Diabetes
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Hyperlipidemia
Hypertension
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Osteoporosis
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
        Blood
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Brain
Heart & heart devices
Kidney
Liver
Lung
Pancreas
Spleen
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Stretching
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
 
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
     
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years


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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview
         
       

       
     
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