(clinical and experimental data)
The effect of individualized diet challenges consisting of allergenic foods on TNF-alpha and IL-1beta levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Calorie restricted diet and urinary pentosidine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Short-term therapeutic fasting in the treatment of chronic pain and fatigue syndromes--well-being and side effects with and without mineral supplements.
Fasting followed by vegetarian diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.
Effects of a low calorie vegan diet on disease activity and general conditions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Changes in glycosylation of IgG during fasting in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Low fat diet decreases alpha-tocopherol levels, and stimulates LDL oxidation and eicosanoid biosynthesis in man.
Effects of calorie restriction on transforming growth factor beta 1 and proinflammatory cytokines in murine Sjogren's syndrome.


Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004 Nov;43(11):1429-33.
The effect of individualized diet challenges consisting of allergenic foods on TNF-alpha and IL-1beta levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Karatay S, Erdem T, Yildirim K, Melikoglu MA, Ugur M, Cakir E, Akcay F, Senel K.
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of individualized diet challenges consisting of allergenic foods, defined by the skin prick test (SPT), on tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Twenty patients with a positive SPT response for food extracts and 20 with a negative SPT response were enrolled. None of the patients had active disease. All patients were fasted for the most common allergenic foods for 12 days and then allocated to two groups according to SPT results. Food challenges were performed with allergenic foods in the prick-positive group (PPG) and with corn and rice in the prick-negative group (PNG) for a period of 12 days. Then, allergenic foods were excluded from the PPG patients' diet and corn and rice were removed from the PNG patients' diet. Clinical examinations were performed after fasting (baseline), at the end of the challenge phase and at the end of the re-elimination phase. Stiffness, pain, tender and swollen joint counts, health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), Ritchie's articular index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum TNF-alpha and IL-1beta levels were measured. RESULTS: TNF-alpha (P < 0.01), IL-1beta (P < 0.05), ESR (P < 0.05) and CRP (P = 0.001) levels and all of the clinical variables, except HAQ, were increased with food challenges in the PPG. These increases were also recorded after the re-elimination phase. In the PNG, no significant change was seen in any of the variables, except pain (P < 0.05). During the study, important differences were observed for most of the variables between the two groups. Thirteen (72%) patients in the PPG and three (18%) in the PNG experienced disease exacerbation with challenges. This aggravation continued after elimination. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that individualized dietary revisions may regulate TNF-alpha and IL-1beta levels in selected patients with RA.


J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2004 Jan;23(1):19-24.
Calorie restricted diet and urinary pentosidine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Iwashige K, Kouda K, Kouda M, Horiuchi K, Takahashi M, Nagano A, Tanaka T, Takeuchi H .
Department of Public Health, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Japan.

Low-energy diets and fasting have suppressive effects on rheumatoid arthritis. It was reported recently that urine levels of pentosidine (i.e., an advanced glycation end product formed by glycosylation) is associated with the activity of rheumatoid arthritis. We conducted a regimen of caloric restriction combined with fasting in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and then evaluated urinary pentosidine levels. Ten patients with rheumatoid arthritis underwent a 54-day caloric restriction program. Urinary pentosidine levels were measured and the Lansbury Index were determined by examining the clinical features, blood biochemistry and the inflammation activity of rheumatoid arthritis on days 0, 25 and 54. On day 0, the mean urinary pentosidine level of patients with rheumatoid arthritis was significantly higher than that of the control subjects. On day 54, the mean body weight had reduced due to caloric restriction. The mean values of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the Lansbury Index of patients both significantly decreased during the study. In addition, although the urinary pentosidine levels showed no significant difference between day 0 and 25, it was significantly decreased at the end of the study (day 54). The study showed that under a low energy diet a reduction of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis was accompanied with a reduction of the urinary pentosidine.



Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2002 Aug;9(4):221-7.
Short-term therapeutic fasting in the treatment of chronic pain and fatigue syndromes--well-being and side effects with and without mineral supplements [Article in German].

Michalsen A, Weidenhammer W, Melchart D, Langhorst J, Saha J, Dobos G.
Abteilung fur Innere Medizin V, Naturheilkunde und Integrative Medizin, Kliniken Essen Mitte, Essen.

BACKGROUND: Fasting followed by vegetarian diet has shown to be an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, moreover fasting is frequently used as an adjunctive treatment in chronic pain and stress/exhaustion syndromes. Data on well-being and the frequency of side effects during fasting are mostly retrospective. Mineral supplements are frequently used in order to compensate for fasting-induced tissue acidosis and to reduce side effects. There are only limited data that support this practice. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of oral mineral supplements on common side effects and well-being during short-term fasting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 209 consecutive inpatients with chronic pain/exhaustion syndromes were recruited. In a controlled non-randomised study design all patients underwent fasting (250 kcal; 3 l fluid intake/day) over 7 days, in study phase 1 without (n = 103) and in study phase 2 with (n = 106) concomitant prescription of standardised oral mineral supplements (3 x 2 to 3 x 3 Bullrich's Vital). Weight, blood pressure and urinary pH were recorded daily. Well-being and mood as well as common side effects (i.e. fatigue, hunger, heart burn, headache) were assessed with standardised self-reports. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of the 209 patients (mean age 54.7 +/- 10.5 years; 83.3% female) were balanced. Both groups showed a fasting-induced decrease of blood pressure, a slight decrease in mood and well-being on days 3 and 4 with consecutive increase and moderate hunger, i.e. in the evening. Side effects and general tolerability of fasting as well as well-being and mood were not different between the groups. There were no serious side effects in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term fasting in inpatients with pain and stress syndromes is safe and well tolerated, concomitant mineral supplements have no additive benefit.



Scand J Rheumatol 2001;30(1):1-10.
Fasting followed by vegetarian diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.
Muller H, de Toledo FW, Resch KL.
Balneology and Rehabilitation Sciences Research Institute (FBK), Bad Elster, Germany.

Clinical experience suggests that fasting followed by vegetarian diet may help patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We reviewed the available scientific evidence, because patients frequently ask for dietary advice, and exclusive pharmacological treatment of RA is often not satisfying. Fasting studies in RA were searched in MEDLINE and by checking references in relevant reports. The results of the controlled studies which reported follow-up data for at least three months after fasting were quantitatively pooled. Thirty-one reports of fasting studies in patients with RA were found. Only four controlled studies investigated the effects of fasting and subsequent diets for at least three months. The pooling of these studies showed a statistically and clinically significant beneficial long-term effect. Thus, available evidence suggests that fasting followed by vegetarian diets might be useful in the treatment of RA. More randomised long-term studies are needed to confirm this view by methodologically convincing data.



Rinsho Byori 1999 Jun;47(6):554-60.
Effects of a low calorie vegan diet on disease activity and general conditions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis [Article in Japanese].
Fujita A, Hashimoto Y, Nakahara K, Tanaka T, Okuda T, Koda M.
Clinical Research Laboratory, Sunstar Co. Ltd., Takatsuki.

There is little objective information about diet therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan. We studied 14 patients with RA who stayed in the Koda hospital for 55 days. They basically took a 1200 kcal vegan diet consisting of unpolished rice gruel, juice of raw vegetables, soya bean curd and sesame seeds, and undertook a 3-5-day fast three times. During the 55-day stay, average body weight decreased by 5.1kg. Lansbury index and ESR decreased whereas CRP did not change. WBC decreased and the differential cell counts showed a decrease of neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes without a change in lymphocytes or basophils. RBC, hemoglobin and MCV increased. LDL-C decreased, while HDL-C increased. There was no change in total protein or albumin. These data suggest that this combination of a low calorie vegan diet and fasting may contribute to improve RA with little undesirable effects on the patient's general conditions.



Br J Rheumatol 1996 Feb;35(2):117-9.
Changes in glycosylation of IgG during fasting in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Sumar N, Bodman-Smith K, Brostoff J.
Institute of Immunology and Rheumatology, The National Hospital, Olso, Norway.

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a higher proportion of agalactosyl IgG than healthy individuals. Glycosylation status was examined in 26 RA patients who fasted for 7-10 days and afterwards followed a vegetarian diet for 3.5 months. The decrease in the proportion of agalactosyl IgG correlated significantly with the clinical improvement after the fasting period, but not after the vegetarian diet period. Although the glycosylation status of IgG may have played a role in the improvement of disease during the fasting period, it did not seem to be associated with, and therefore responsible for, the clinical improvement observed after the vegetarian diet.



Eur J Med Res. 1995 Nov 17;1(2):65-71.
Low fat diet decreases alpha-tocopherol levels, and stimulates LDL oxidation and eicosanoid biosynthesis in man.
Adam O, Lemmen C, Kless T, Adam P, Denzlinger C, Hailer S.
Medizinische Poliklinik und Rheumaeinheit der LMU, Munich, Germany.

The effects of a conventional 1000 kcal diet, and of a further restriction of dietary fat by a fat substitute, on the concentrations of vitamin A and E in plasma and LDL, the formation of lipid peroxides and eicosanoids were investigated in 10 obese volunteers. In vitro copper catalyzed oxidation of conjugated dienes, lipid peroxides and TBARS activity, measured in LDL samples after week 2 (supplementation with 140 mg/d alpha-tocopherol and 5000 IU retinol-acetat for two weeks), week 6 (conventional diet) and week 10 (fat substitute), increased with vitamin E depletion statistically significant after week 10 compared to the values after week 2. Concomitantly, PGE2 and LTB4, determined by RIA, increased to 344% and 166%, respectively, compared to the values after week 2. PGM, determined as tetranorprostanedioic acid by GC-MS, increased to 120%. Stimulation of lipid peroxidation and eicosanoid formation was more pronounced in persons with initially low (19 - 26 micromol/l plasma) than in those with high (37 - 70 pmol/l plasma) concentrations of alpha-tocopherol. We conclude that fat restricted diets can lead to an unwanted stimulation of lipid peroxidation and eicosanoid formation, which may be relevant in states of disease, e. g. arteriosclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis.


Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1995 Sep;76(3 Pt 1):291-6.
Effects of calorie restriction on transforming growth factor beta 1 and proinflammatory cytokines in murine Sjogren's syndrome.
Chandrasekar B, McGuff HS, Aufdermorte TB, Troyer DA, Talal N, Fernandes G.
Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio 78284-7874, USA.

The present study was carried out to determine whether restricting dietary calories prevents salivary gland abnormalities and modulates expression of transforming growth factor beta and proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, and TNF alpha in major salivary glands (SG) of autoimmune lupus-prone (NZB x NZW)F1 (B/W) female mice. These mice develop focal lymphocytic interstitial and periductal round cell infiltrates in salivary glands similar to those of humans with Sjogren's syndrome. Weanling B/W mice were fed a nutritionally adequate semipurified diet either ad libitum (AL) or a calorie-restricted (CR; 40% less calories than AL) diet. The mice were sacrificed at 3.5 months (young) and 8.5 months (old) of age. Histopathologic and histomorphometric analyses as well as growth factor and cytokine protein and mRNA expression were carried out in the SG. Histomorphometric analysis of SG from young mice showed no differences between AL and CR mice, but old AL (vs old CR) had a 7.3-fold higher focus score and a 34-fold increase in percentage area inflammation. mRNA analysis revealed significantly higher levels of TGF beta 1 in SG of old CR (6.8-fold) mice. In contrast, CR reduced mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, 2.9-fold for young and 4.8-fold for old; TNF alpha, old 3.9-fold). By immunoblotting, significantly higher levels of TGF beta 1 protein was detected in old CR mice (vs old AL; 13.2-fold). IL-6 and TNF alpha proteins were undetectable in both young and old CR groups, whereas an increase in IL-6 (4.7-fold) and TNF alpha (9.3-fold) was observed in old AL mice. These results indicate that amelioration of the histological severity of disease in SG of B/W mice is paralleled and possibly mediated by increased expression of immunosuppressive TGF beta 1 and decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines.

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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