(clinical and experimental data)
Metabolism and thermoregulation during fasting in king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus, in air and water.
Regional-dependent Increase of Sympathetic Innervation in Rat White Adipose Tissue during Prolonged Fasting.
Rapid and reversible induction of the longevity, anticancer and genomic effects of caloric restriction.
Morphometry of fine structural alterations of hepatocytes of Japanese monkeys under fasting stress.


Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 May 12.
Metabolism and thermoregulation during fasting in king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus, in air and water.
Fahlman A, Schmidt A, Handrich Y, Woakes AJ, Butler PJ.
School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

We measured rate of oxygen consumption (VO2) and body temperatures in 10 king penguins in air and water. VO2 was measured during rest and at submaximal and maximal exercise before (fed) and after (fasted) an average fasting duration of 14.4 +/- 2.3 days (mean +/- 1 SD, range 10-19 days) in air and water. Concurrently, we measured subcutaneous temperature and temperature of the upper (heart and liver), middle (stomach) and lower (intestine) abdomen. The mean body mass was 13.8 +/- 1.2 kg in fed and 11.0 +/- 0.6 kg in fasted birds. After fasting, resting VO2 was 93% higher in water than in air (air: 86.9 +/- 8.8 ml (.) min(-1); water: 167.3 +/- 36.7 ml (.) min(-1), P < 0.01), while there was no difference in resting VO2 between air and water in fed animals (air: 117.1 +/- 20.0 ml 02 (.) min(-1) water: 114.8 +/- 32.7 ml 02 (.) min(-1), P > 0.6). In air, VO2 decreased with body mass while it increased with body mass in water. Body temperature did not change with fasting in air whereas in water, there were complex changes in the peripheral body temperatures. These latter changes may, therefore, be indicative of a loss in body insulation and of variations in peripheral perfusion. Four animals were given a single meal after fasting and the temperature changes were partly reversed 24 h after re-feeding in all body regions except the subcutaneous, indicating a rapid reversal to a pre-fasting state where body heat loss is minimal. The data emphasize the importance in considering nutritional status when studying king penguins and that the fasting-related physiological changes diverge in air and water.

J Histochem Cytochem. 2005 Jun;53(6):679-87.
Regional-dependent Increase of Sympathetic Innervation in Rat White Adipose Tissue during Prolonged Fasting.
Giordano A, Frontini A, Murano I, Tonello C, Marino MA, Carruba MO, Nisoli E, Cinti S.
Institute of Normal Human Morphology, Marche Polytechnic University, Via Tronto, 10/A, 60020 Ancona, Italy.

White adipose tissue (WAT) is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system. A role for WAT sympathetic noradrenergic nerves in lipid mobilization has been suggested. To gain insight into the involvement of nerve activity in the delipidation process, WAT nerves were investigated in rat retroperitoneal and epididymal depots after prolonged fasting. A significant increase in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) content was found in epididymal and, especially, retroperitoneal WAT by Western blotting. Accordingly, an increased immunoreactivity for TH was detected by immunohistochemistry in epididymal and, especially, retroperitoneal vascular and parenchymal noradrenergic nerves. Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing nerves were found around arteries and in the parenchyma. Double-staining experiments and confocal microscopy showed that most perivascular and some parenchymal noradrenergic nerves also contained NPY. Detection of protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, a general marker of peripheral nerves, by Western blotting and PGP 9.5-TH by double-staining experiments showed significantly increased noradrenergic nerve density in fasted retroperitoneal, but not epididymal depots, suggesting that formation of new nerves takes place in retroperitoneal WAT in fasting conditions. On the whole, these data confirm the important role of sympathetic noradrenergic nerves in WAT lipid mobilization during fasting but also raise questions about the physiological role of regional-dependent nerve adjustments and their functional significance in relation to white adipocyte secretory products.

Mech Ageing Dev. 2005 May 28.
Rapid and reversible induction of the longevity, anticancer and genomic effects of caloric restriction.
Spindler SR.
Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

It is widely held that caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan by preventing or reducing the age-related accumulation of irreversible molecular damage. In contrast, our results suggest that CR can act rapidly to begin life and health span extension, and that its rapid genomic effects are closely linked to its health effects. We found that CR begins to extend lifespan and reduce cancer as a cause of death within 8 weeks in older mice, apparently by reducing the rate of tumor growth. Further, 8 weeks of CR progressively reproduces nearly three quarters of the genomic effects of long-term CR (LTCR) in liver. Fewer of the genomic effects of LTCR are rapidly reproduced by the initiation of CR in the heart, but the changes produced are keys to cardiovascular health. Thus, the genomic effects of CR may be established more rapidly in mitotic than in postmitotic tissues. Most of the genomic effects of LTCR dissipate 8 weeks after switching to a control diet. Consistent with these results, others have shown that acute CR rapidly and reversibly reduces the short-term risk of death in Drosophila to that of LTCR treated flies. Further, in late adulthood, acute CR partially or completely reverses age-related alterations of liver, brain and heart proteins. CR also rapidly and reversibly mitigates biomarkers of aging in adult rhesus macaques and humans. These data argue that highly conserved mechanisms for the rapid and reversible enhancement of life- and health-span exist for mitotic and postmitotic tissues.



J Vet Med Sci 1998 Jul;60(7):849-52.
Morphometry of fine structural alterations of hepatocytes of Japanese monkeys under fasting stress.
Yang YG; Makita T.
Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Japan.

The fine structural alterations of hepatocytes of Japanese monkeys under 4 days of fasting stress were analyzed morphometrically. One of the conspicuous alterations was the enlargement of mitochondria. The average diameter of mitochondria in fasting group increased to approximately 1.89-fold of that in control group, though their number did not change. The number of peroxisomes was 1.36-fold of that in control, though their area did not change. In addition, many of r-ER were swollen and were vesiculated. The appearance of bundle of actin-like stress fiber also increased in the fasting animals. The glycogen area as well as liver weight decreased in fasting group.

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

Click image
to view
    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

Home Contact Us ANTI-AGING GUIDE 2003