(clinical and experimental data)
Effects of calorie restriction on reproductive and adrenal systems in Japanese quail: Are responses similar to mammals, particularly primates?
Life-long moderate caloric restriction prolongs reproductive life span in rats without interrupting estrous cyclicity: effects on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone/luteinizing hormone axis.
Retardation by restricted feeding of age-related changes in steroidogenic activity of rat pre- and post-ovulatory follicles.
Mech Ageing Dev. 2005 May 31.
Effects of calorie restriction on reproductive and adrenal systems in Japanese quail: Are responses similar to mammals, particularly primates?
Ottinger MA, Mobarak M, Abdelnabi M, Roth G, Proudman J, Ingram DK.
Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, 3115 Animal Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA; Laboratory of Experimental Gerontology, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, NIH, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The benefits of calorie restriction (CR) have been established across a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. Although the effects of CR on lifespan in birds have not been examined, it is clear that CR has beneficial effects on reproductive, metabolic, and physiological function in adult poultry. We examined the effects of CR in Japanese quail, a rapidly maturing avian model, on reproductive endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. Male Japanese quail were pair fed at 0% ad libitum (AL), 20%, or 40% CR of AL, recorded for juveniles (3-7 weeks of age) or adults (12-16 weeks of age). Juvenile males on CR matured more slowly, and both juvenile and adult males had reduced plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) with CR. Adults on 40% CR showed evidence of stress, with increased plasma corticosterone and reduced testes weight and circulating androgens. In a separate study, pituitary gland response was tested in juvenile and adult castrated males that had been on the same CR treatments. All birds responded to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge, with LH release. However, the 40% CR juvenile and adult birds had quantitatively lower responses, suggesting central inhibition of the reproductive axis. This hypothesis was tested by measurement of sexual behavior and catecholamines known to stimulate GnRH in hypothalamic regions that modulate these responses. Results showed reduced norepinephrine in key hypothalamic regions and reduced dopamine in posterior hypothalamus. These data support the hypothesis that CR affects reproductive function, with evidence for effects in the central nervous system. These data are discussed and compared to data collected in mammals, especially the rhesus monkey, on the effects of timing and degree of CR on reproductive and stress responses.

Biol Reprod 1996 Jan;54(1):70-5
Life-long moderate caloric restriction prolongs reproductive life span in rats without interrupting estrous cyclicity: effects on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone/luteinizing hormone axis.
McShane TM; Wise PM.
Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington 40536-0084, USA.

Restricting food intake to 60% that of ad libitum-fed rats results in an extended life span, reduced incidence of age-related diseases, and delayed reproductive senescence. We used this animal model to further elucidate the mechanisms whereby reproductive senescence is delayed. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (7 wk old) were calorically restricted (CR; n = 70) to 60% of the ad libitum(AL) intake measured in control rats (n = 70). Rats were individually housed under a 14L:10D cycle and fed daily within 1.5 h of lights-off. Body weights were monitored every 2 wk, and vaginal lavage was performed until rats were ovariectomized (OVX). Two weeks after OVX, when rats were 4, 12, or 18 mo of age, blood samples were taken via jugular cannulae every 6 min for 3 h, and the plasma was assayed for rat LH. The resulting profiles were examined through use of Cluster analysis for mean LH concentrations, LH pulse amplitude, and interval between LH pulses. CR rats grew at a slower rate, and then maintained body weights at approximately 76% that of AL controls between 4 and 17.5 mo of age. The onset of persistent estrus was delayed by 4 mo in CR rats. Average cycle length was longer (p < 0.01) by less than 0.5 days in CR compared with AL rats between 3.5 and 5.5 mo of age but not different between 6.5 and 11.5 mo. Mean levels of LH in OVX rats decreased with age (p < 0.01), increased with caloric restriction (p < 0.05), and decreased with declining cycling status of the animal prior to OVX (regular [reg] vs. irregular [ir] vs. persistent estrus [pe]; p < 0.05). The increased mean LH due to caloric restriction was attributed to an increase in mean pulse amplitude and not to a decrease in time interval between LH pulses. From these data we conclude that the beneficial effects of caloric restriction on reproductive longevity may be acting at the level of the hypothalamus and/or pituitary to enhance LH secretion and do not require a delay in puberty or a period of acyclicity.

Age Ageing 1996 May;25(3):250-5 Retardation by restricted feeding of age-related changes in steroidogenic activity of rat pre- and post-ovulatory follicles.
Merry BJ, Holehan AM.
Institute of Human Ageing/Department of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK.

Reproductive ageing in female rodents is accompanied by changes in circulating peptide and steroid hormones leading to irregular, lengthened oestrous cycles prior to loss of fertility. In this study, the effect of ageing is reported on steroid hormone synthesis within individual ovarian follicles and its retardation by restricted feeding for two groups of ad libitum fed animals (114 and 350 days) and two groups of diet-restricted animals (350 and 600 days). Follicles from ad libitum fed animals of 350 days showed a transition in follicular steroid hormone synthesis to release elevated amounts of oestradiol-17beta on all days of the cycle. This age-related change in follicle steroid release was significantly delayed by maintaining animals on a restricted feeding regime, and was not complete even by 600 days of age. This effect of diet as a means to manipulate ageing of the follicular steroidogenic pathways provides a useful system for investigating the control of reproductive ageing in rodents.

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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