(clinical and experimental data)
Is caloric restriction a means of delaying ageing and increasing longevity?
Development of calorie restriction mimetics as a prolongevity strategy.
Strain variation in the response of body temperature to dietary restriction.
Calorie restriction lowers body temperature in rhesus monkeys, consistent with a postulated anti-aging mechanism in rodents.
Presse Med. 2005 Jan 29;34(2 Pt 1):121-7.
[Is caloric restriction a means of delaying ageing and increasing longevity?]. [Article in French].
Le Bourg E.
Charge de recherche au CNRS, Centre de recherche sur la cognition animale, UMR CNRS 5169, Universite Paul-Sabatier, Toulouse.

Calorie restriction increases longevity in rodents, delays the onset of certain diseases and has positive effects on ageing. Studies are ongoing in non-human primates. Eight persons following such a diet for 2 years reacted as anticipated (loss of body weight and fat, decrease in glycaemia and body temperature, etc.). Calorie restriction perhaps teaches us more on the means of resisting malnutrition than on ageing in normal dietary conditions. Calorie restriction is a tool for research, but it should not be recommended by practitioners, notably in elderly patients.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Jun;1019:412-23.
Development of calorie restriction mimetics as a prolongevity strategy.
Ingram DK, Anson RM, de Cabo R, Mamczarz J, Zhu M, Mattison J, Lane MA, Roth GS.
Laboratory of Experimental Gerontology, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

By applying calorie restriction (CR) at 30-50% below ad libitum levels, studies in numerous species have reported increased life span, reduced incidence and delayed onset of age-related diseases, improved stress resistance, and decelerated functional decline. Whether this nutritional intervention is relevant to human aging remains to be determined; however, evidence emerging from CR studies in nonhuman primates suggests that response to CR in primates parallels that observed in rodents. To evaluate CR effects in humans, clinical trials have been initiated. Even if evidence could substantiate CR as an effective antiaging strategy for humans, application of this intervention would be problematic due to the degree and length of restriction required. To meet this challenge for potential application of CR, new research to create "caloric restriction mimetics" has emerged. This strategy focuses on identifying compounds that mimic CR effects by targeting metabolic and stress response pathways affected by CR, but without actually restricting caloric intake. Microarray studies show that gene expression profiles of key enzymes in glucose (energy) handling pathways are modified by CR. Drugs that inhibit glycolysis (2-deoxyglucose) or enhance insulin action (metformin) are being assessed as CR mimetics. Promising results have emerged from initial studies regarding physiological responses indicative of CR (reduced body temperature and plasma insulin) as well as protection against neurotoxicity, enhanced dopamine action, and upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Further life span analyses in addition to expanded toxicity studies must be completed to assess the potential of any CR mimetic, but this strategy now appears to offer a very promising and expanding research field.

Mech Ageing Dev. 2003 May;124(5):663-78.
Strain variation in the response of body temperature to dietary restriction.
Rikke BA, Yerg JE 3rd, Battaglia ME, Nagy TR, Allison DB, Johnson TE.
Institute for Behavioral Genetics, Campus Box 447, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309-0447, USA.

Dietary restriction (DR, also referred to as calorie restriction, energy restriction, and food restriction) retards senescence and increases longevity in mammals. DR also lowers mean body temperature (T(b)), and thus mean T(b) might be useful as a covariate of DR-induced life extension. Indeed, lower T(b) could itself underlie some of the beneficial life-extension effects that occur during DR. To assess the relationship between lower T(b) during DR and life extension, we asked whether significant strain variation exists in the T(b) response of mice being fed 60% ad libitum (AL). Individually-housed, female mice from 28 strains, representing a genealogically diverse sample of the classical inbred strains, were directly compared. The mean T(b)s in response to DR exhibited highly significant strain variation, ranging from 1.5 degrees C below normal to a phenomenal 5 degrees C below normal. This variation was not explained by differences in loss of thermoregulation, AL adiposity, sensitivity to a nonadaptive hypothermia, motor activity, thermal arousal, absolute food intake, or efficacy of nutrient extraction. The variation in strain mean T(b) was also present in the absence of torpor. This strain variation could be used to critically test whether lower T(b) is a covariate of life extension during DR.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996 Apr 30;93(9):4159-64
Calorie restriction lowers body temperature in rhesus monkeys, consistent with a postulated anti-aging mechanism in rodents.
Lane MA, Baer DJ, Rumpler WV, Weindruch R, Ingram DK, Tilmont EM, Cutler RG, Roth GS.
Molecular Physiology and Genetics Section, Nathan W. Shock Laboratories, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Many studies of caloric restriction (CR) in rodents and lower animals indicate that this nutritional manipulation retards aging processes, as evidenced by increased longevity, reduced pathology, and maintenance of physiological function in a more youthful state. The anti-aging effects of CR are believed to relate, at least in part, to changes in energy metabolism. We are attempting to determine whether similar effects occur in response to CR in nonhuman primates. Core (rectal) body temperature decreased progressively with age from 2 to 30 years in rhesus monkeys fed ad lib (controls) and is reduced by approximately 0.5 degrees C in age-matched monkeys subjected to 6 years of a 30% reduction in caloric intake. A short-term (1 month) 30% restriction of 2.5-year-old monkeys lowered subcutaneous body temperature by 1.0 degrees C. Indirect calorimetry showed that 24-hr energy expenditure was reduced by approximately 24% during short-term CR. The temporal association between reduced body temperature and energy expenditure suggests that reductions in body temperature relate to the induction of an energy conservation mechanism during CR. These reductions in body temperature and energy expenditure are consistent with findings in rodent studies in which aging rate was retarded by CR, now strengthening the possibility that CR may exert beneficial effects in primates analogous to those observed in rodents.

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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