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PERIODICAL FASTING AND CALORIC RESTRICTION FOR LIFE EXTENSION, DISEASE TREATMENT AND CREATIVITY.
(clinical and experimental data)
 
 3.4 MECHANISM: HOW DOES CALORIE RESTRICTION RETARD AGING ANDF BOOST HEALTH? 
   
   
  ENHANCEMENT OF FREE RADICAL PRODUCTION  
   
 
Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: current status and future prospects.
Short-term caloric restriction and sites of oxygen radical generation in kidney and skeletal muscle mitochondria.
Aging in vertebrates, and the effect of caloric restriction: a mitochondrial free radical production-DNA damage mechanism?
Modulations by dietary restriction on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in developing mice.
Effects of caloric restriction on skeletal muscle mitochondrial proton leak in aging rats.
 
   
   
J Assoc Physicians India. 2004 Oct;52:794-804.
Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: current status and future prospects.
Devasagayam TP, Tilak JC, Boloor KK, Sane KS, Ghaskadbi SS, Lele RD.
Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085.

Free radicals and related species have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. They are mainly derived from oxygen (reactive oxygen species/ROS) and nitrogen (reactive nitrogen species/RNS), and are generated in our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physicochemical conditions or pathophysiological states. Free radicals can adversely alter lipids, proteins and DNA and have been implicated in aging and a number of human diseases. Lipids are highly prone to free radical damage resulting in lipid peroxidation that can lead to adverse alterations. Free radical damage to protein can result in loss of enzyme activity. Damage caused to DNA, can result in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Redox signaling is a major area of free radical research that is attracting attention. Nature has endowed us with protective antioxidant mechanisms- superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidases and reductase, vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), vitamin C etc., apart from many dietary components. There are epidemiological evidences correlating higher intake of components/ foods with antioxidant abilities to lower incidence of various human morbidities or mortalities. Current research reveals the different potential applications of antioxidant/free radical manipulations in prevention or control of disease. Natural products from dietary components such as Indian spices and medicinal plants are known to possess antioxidant activity. Newer and future approaches include gene therapy to produce more antioxidants in the body, genetically engineered plant products with higher level of antioxidants, synthetic antioxidant enzymes (SOD mimics), novel biomolecules and the use of functional foods enriched with antioxidants.

   
   
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Jun;1019:333-42.
Short-term caloric restriction and sites of oxygen radical generation in kidney and skeletal muscle mitochondria.
Gredilla R, Phaneuf S, Selman C, Kendaiah S, Leeuwenburgh C, Barja G.
Department of Animal Biology-II (Animal Physiology), Faculty of Biology, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Mitochondrial free radical generation is believed to be one of the principal factors determining aging rate, and complexes I and III have been described as the main sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within mitochondria in heart, brain, and liver. Moreover, complex I ROS generation of heart and liver mitochondria seems especially linked to aging rate both in comparative studies between animals with different longevities and in caloric restriction models. Caloric restriction (CR) is a well-documented manipulation that extends mean and maximum longevity. One of the factors that appears to be involved in such life span extension is the reduction in mitochondrial free radical generation at complex I. We have performed two parallel investigations, one studying the effect of short-term CR on oxygen radical generation in kidney and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) mitochondria and a second one regarding location of mitochondrial ROS-generating sites in these same tissues. In the former study, no effect of short-term caloric restriction was observed in mitochondrial free radical generation in either kidney or skeletal muscle. The latter study ruled out complex II as a principal source of free radicals in kidney and in skeletal muscle mitochondria, and, similar to previous investigations in heart and liver organelles, the main free radical generators were located at complexes I and III within the electron transport system.

   
   
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2004 May;79(2):235-51.
Aging in vertebrates, and the effect of caloric restriction: a mitochondrial free radical production-DNA damage mechanism?
Barja G.
Department of Animal Biology-II (Animal Physiology), Faculty of Biology, Complutense University, Madrid 28040, Spain.

Oxygen is toxic to aerobic animals because it is univalently reduced inside cells to oxygen free radicals. Studies dealing with the relationship between oxidative stress and aging in different vertebrate species and in caloric-restricted rodents are discussed in this review. Healthy tissues mainly produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) at mitochondria. These ROS can damage cellular lipids, proteins and, most importantly, DNA. Although antioxidants help to control this oxidative stress in cells in general, they do not decrease the rate of aging, because their concentrations are lower in long- than in short-lived animals and because increasing antioxidant levels does not increase vertebrate maximum longevity. However, long-lived homeothermic vertebrates consistently have lower rates of mitochondrial ROS production and lower levels of steady-state oxidative damage in their mitochondrial DNA than short-lived ones. Caloric-restricted rodents also show lower levels of these two key parameters than controls fed ad libitum. The decrease in mitochondrial ROS generation of the restricted animals has been recently localized at complex I and the mechanism involved is related to the degree of electronic reduction of the complex I ROS generator. Strikingly, the same site and mechanism have been found when comparing a long- with a short-lived animal species. It is suggested that a low rate of mitochondrial ROS generation extends lifespan both in long-lived and in caloric-restricted animals by determining the rate of oxidative attack and accumulation of somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA.

   
   
J Appl Physiol 2003 Mar;94(3):947-52
Modulations by dietary restriction on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in developing mice.
Wu A, Sun X, Wan F, Liu Y.
Departments of Nutrition and Food Hygiene and Environmental Toxicology, Tongji Medical University, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China.

The effects of dietary restriction (DR) on the activities of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the level of lipid peroxidation (LP) in developing mice were investigated in this study. Male and female Kunmin mice were fed a standard rodent diet ad libitum (AL), 80% of AL food intake (20% DR), or 65% of AL food intake (35% DR) for 12 or 24 wk. Both 12 and 24 wk of DR resulted in retarded body weight gain in male and female mice. The activities of SOD, Cat, and GPX and the content of LP in DR male and female mice were not different (P > 0.05) from those in controls after 12 wk of DR. However, the SOD activity was increased at 24 wk in 20% DR (P < 0.05) and 35% DR (P < 0.01) male, but not in DR female, mice. The Cat activity was elevated at 24 wk in both DR male (P < 0.05 for 20% DR, P < 0.01 for 35% DR) and female (P < 0.01) mice with a greater increase in DR female (P < 0.05) than in DR male animals. GPX activity was also increased at 24 wk in DR male (P < 0.01) and female (P < 0.01) mice with a greater elevation in DR females (P < 0.05) than in DR males. Furthermore, LP was decreased at 24 wk in both DR male (P < 0.01) and female (P < 0.01) animals with a greater reduction in DR females (P < 0.01) compared with DR males. These findings indicated that 24 wk, but not 12 wk, of DR led to differential effects on liver SOD, Cat, and GPX activities and LP content in male and female mice during development, suggesting sex-associated modulations of DR on antioxidant systems in developing animals.

   
   
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1998 May;53(3):B161-7.
Effects of aging and food restriction on the antioxidant enzyme activity of rat livers.
Gomi F, Matsuo M.
Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Faculty of Science, Konan University, Hyogo, Japan.

The effects of aging and food restriction on the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes in rat livers were examined. Rats were fed ad libitum every day (AL) or ad libitum on every other weekday (FR). At 30 months of age, the catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were lower, whereas the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, an index of lipid peroxidation of the AL rats, was higher than that at younger ages. At 33 months of age, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities increased, and the TBA value of the FR rats remained unchanged as compared with those at younger ages. Until old age, food restriction gave rather decreasing effects on antioxidant enzyme activities. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activities and the TBA values of the FR rats were higher at the end of a fasting period than those at the end of a feeding period.

   
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FASTING / LOW CALORIE PROGRAMS
on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
     
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
     
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
 
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
        Obesity
Diabetes
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Allergies
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
Infertility
Presbyacusis
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Radio-sensitivity
Apoptosis
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science
     

Vegetables
Fruits
Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Fish
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Legumes
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Mushrooms
Nuts and seeds
Alcohol
Coffee
Water
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Selenium
Flavonoids, carotenes
DHEA
Vitamin B
Carnitin
SAM
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
HGH
Gerovital
Melatonin
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Arthritis
Cancer
Depression
Diabetes
Hyperlipidemia
Hypertension
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Menopause
Muscle weakness
Osteoporosis
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
 
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Arthritis
Cancer
Depression
Diabetes
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Hyperlipidemia
Hypertension
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Osteoporosis
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
        Blood
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Brain
Heart & heart devices
Kidney
Liver
Lung
Pancreas
Spleen
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Stretching
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
 
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
     
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years


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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview
         
       

       
     
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