(clinical and experimental data)
Three weeks of caloric restriction alters protein metabolism in normal weight, young men.
Calorie restriction improves whole-body glucose disposal and insulin resistance in association with the increased adipocyte-specific GLUT4 expression in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats.
Caloric restriction and lifespan: a role for protein turnover?
Dietary Restriction Initiated in Late Adulthood Can Reverse Age-related Alterations of Protein and Protein Metabolism.
Caloric restriction alters the feeding response of key metabolic enzyme genes.
Calorie restriction enhances the _expression of key metabolic enzymes associated with protein renewal during aging.
Reversible effects of long-term caloric restriction on protein oxidative damage.
The influence of age and chronic restricted feeding on protein synthesis in the small intestine of the rat.
The effects of aging and chronic dietary restriction on whole body growth and protein turnover in the rat.
DR working by affecting protein metabolism and rate of turnover.

there is an age-related decline in the rates of protein synthesis and protein degradation and, therefore, and age-related decrease in the rate of protein turnover. This is true in most individual tissue types and organs in the body as well as for the total protein turnover in the whole body. An exception may be the lung, where there may be no decline in the rate of protein turnover. In addition to using protein turnover to recycle amino acids, turnover permits adjustments in enzyme and structural proteins and receptors and modulators as well as for destruction of damaged proteins (e.g., oxidative damage) and replacement with normal proteins.

there is an age-related increase in the concentration of abnormal proteins due to post-translational modification errors (the main metabolic cause of abnormal proteins) and in oxidatively damaged proteins. With CR, there is less age-related increase in abnormal proteins form both sources (i.e., post-transnational modifications and oxidative damage). There is an intracellular protein complex that specifically degrades oxidatively damaged proteins. This complex is called a "proteasome".

CR produces an increase in the rate of protein synthesis and an increase in the rate of protein degradation, and therefore causes an increase in the rate of protein turnover. The age-related decline in the rate of protein turnover is not stopped or slowed by CR, but since young CR animals have 30%-40% greater protein turnover and the age-related decline in the rate of protein turnover is essentially the same in CR and in AL animals, at any age, CR animals always have substantially higher rates of protein turnover than do AL animals. The benefit of higher rates of protein turnover include faster responses when alterations in proteins are needed (e.g., receptors or regulators) and faster elimination of damaged proteins (e.g., oxidative damage). This may be one mechanism by which CR increases ML and LS. Other types of "problematic" proteins can develop as a result of metabolic errors (e.g., gene mutations, errors in transcription, mRNA processing, translation, or post-transnational processing of proteins as well as damage caused by environmental factors (e.g., bacteria, radiation, heat, toxins).

CR may increase ML and LS in many animals by increasing the synthesis of protects substances such as heat shock proteins, which increase protection against a variety of adverse factors in saddition to elevated temperature .

In most organs (exept skeletal muscles and lung) caloric restriction leads to an increase in protein synthesis, degradation and turnover compared to age-matched fully fed controls.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May 3.
Three weeks of caloric restriction alters protein metabolism in normal weight, young men.
Friedlander AL, Braun B, Pollack M, Macdonald JR, Fulco CS, Muza SR, Rock PB, Henderson GC, Horning MA, Brooks GA, Hoffman AR, Cymerman A.
VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA; University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA.

The effects of prolonged caloric restriction on protein kinetics in lean subjects has not been previously investigated. PURPOSE: To test the hypotheses that 21 days of caloric restriction (CR) in lean subjects would a) result in significant losses of lean mass despite a suppression in leucine turnover and oxidation, and b) negatively impact exercise performance. METHODS: Nine young, normal weight men (23+/-5 y, 78.6+/-5.7 kg, VO2peak: 45.2+/-7.3 ml(.)kg(-1)(.)min(-1),mean+/-SD) were underfed by 40% of the calories required to maintain body weight (BW) for 21 days and lost 3.8+/-0.3 kg BW and 2.0+/-0.4 kg lean mass. Protein intake was kept at 1.2 g(.)kg(-1)(.)day(-1). Leucine kinetics were measured using KIC reciprocal pool model in the post-absorptive state during rest and 50 minutes of exercise (EX) at 50% of VO2peak. Body composition, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and exercise performance were measured throughout the intervention. RESULTS: At rest, leucine flux (~131 micromol(.)kg(-1)(.)hr(-1)) and oxidation (Rox; ~19 micromol(.)kg(-1)(.)hr(-1)) did not differ pre- and post- CR. During EX, leucine flux (129+/-6 vs. 121+/-6) and Rox (54+/-6 vs. 46+/-8)were lower following CR than pre-CR. Nitrogen balance was negative throughout the intervention (~3.0gN(.)d(-1)) and BMR declined from 1898+/-262 kcal(.)d(-1) to 1670+/-203. Aerobic performance (VO2peak, endurance cycling) was not impacted by CR, but arm flexion endurance decreased by 20%. CONCLUSIONS: Three weeks of caloric restriction reduced leucine flux and oxidation during exercise in normal weight young men. However, despite negative nitrogen balance and loss of lean mass, whole body exercise performance was well maintained in response to CR.

Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005 Apr 15;436(2):276-84.
Calorie restriction improves whole-body glucose disposal and insulin resistance in association with the increased adipocyte-specific GLUT4 expression in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats.
Park SY, Choi GH, Choi HI, Ryu J, Jung CY, Lee W.
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Kyungju, Kyungpook 780-714, Korea.

Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to improve peripheral insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in animal models. However, the exact mechanism of CR on GLUT4 expression and translocation in insulin-sensitive tissues has not been well elucidated. In the present study, we examine the effect of CR on the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), GLUT4 translocation, and glucose transport activity in adipose tissue from Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat and control (LETO) rats. CR (70% of satiated group) ameliorated hyperglycemia and improved impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in OLETF rats. In skeletal muscle, the expression levels of GLUT4 and GLUT1 were not significantly different between LETO and OLETF rats, and were not affected by CR. By contrast, the expression level of GLUT4 was markedly decreased in the adipose tissue of OLETF rats, but was dramatically increased by CR. The GLUT4 recruitment stimulated by insulin was also improved in OLETF rat adipocytes by CR. The insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) uptake was significantly increased in adipocytes from the CR OLETF rats, as compared with the satiated OLETF rats. Taken together, these results suggest that CR improves whole body glucose disposal and insulin resistance in OLETF rats, and that these effects may associate with the increased adipocyte-specific GLUT4 expression.

Mech Ageing Dev 2002 Jan;123(2-3):215-29
Caloric restriction and lifespan: a role for protein turnover?
Tavernarakis N, Driscoll M.
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New-Bruns Wick, NJ, USA.

Oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules has been postulated to be a major contributor to the ageing of diverse organisms. Oxidative damage can be limited by maintaining high anti-oxidant defenses and by clearing/repairing damage efficiently. Protein turnover is one of the main routes by which functional proteins are maintained and damaged proteins are removed. Protein turnover rates decline with age, which might contribute to the accumulation of damaged proteins in ageing cells. Interestingly, protein turnover rates are maintained at high levels in caloric restricted animals. Whether changes in protein turnover are a cause or a consequence of ageing is not clear, and this question has not been a focal point of modern ageing research. Here we survey work on protein turnover and ageing and suggest that powerful genetic models such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are well suited for a thorough investigation of this long-standing question.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002 Apr;959:50-56
Dietary Restriction Initiated in Late Adulthood Can Reverse Age-related Alterations of Protein and Protein Metabolism.
Goto S, Takahashi R, Araki S, Nakamoto H.
Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi, Chiba, 274-8510 Japan.

Many reports have been published on the effects of lifelong dietary restriction (DR) on a variety of parameters such as life span, carcinogenesis, immunosenescence, memory function, and oxidative stress. There is, however, limited available information on the effect of late onset DR that might have potential application to intervene in human aging. We have investigated the effect of DR initiated late in life on protein and protein degradation. Two months of DR in 23.5-month-old mice significantly reduced heat-labile altered proteins in the liver, kidney, and brain. DR reversed the age-associated increase in the half-life of proteins, suggesting that the dwelling time of the proteins is reduced in DR animals. In accordance with this observation, the activity of proteasome, which is suggested to be responsible for degradation of altered proteins, was found increased in the liver of rats 30 months of age subjected to 3.5 months of DR. Thus, DR can increase turnover of proteins, thereby possibly attenuating potentially harmful consequences by altered proteins. Likewise, DR in old rats reduced carbonylated proteins in liver mitochondria, although the effect was not observed in cytosolic proteins. Fasting induced apoA-IV synthesis in the liver of young mice for efficient mobilization of stored tissue fats, while it occurred only marginally in the old. DR for 2 months from 23 months of age partially restored inducibility of this protein, suggesting the beneficial effect of DR. Taking all these findings together, it is conceivable that DR conducted in old age can be beneficial not only to retard age-related functional decline but also to restore functional activity in young rodents. Interestingly, recent evidence that involves DNA array gene _expression analysis supports the findings on the age-related decrease in protein turnover and its reversion by late-onset DR.

Mech Ageing Dev 2001 Jul 31;122(10):1033-48
Caloric restriction alters the feeding response of key metabolic enzyme genes.
Dhahbi JM, Mote PL, Wingo J, Rowley BC, Cao SX, Walford RL, Spindler SR.
Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

Differential 'fuel usage' has been proposed as a mechanism for life-span extension by caloric restriction (CR). Here, we report the effects of CR, initiated after weaning, on metabolic enzyme gene _expression 0, 1.5, 5, and 12 h after feeding of 24-month-old mice. Plasma glucose and insulin were reduced by approximately 20 and 80%. Therefore, apparent insulin sensitivity, as judged by the glucose to insulin ratio, increased 3.3-fold in CR mice. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA and activity were transiently reduced 1.5 h after feeding, but were 20-100% higher in CR mice at other times. Glucose-6-phosphatase mRNA was induced in CR mice and repressed in control mice before, and for 5 h following feeding. Feeding transiently induced glucokinase mRNA fourfold in control mice, but only slightly in CR mice. Pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities were reduced approximately 50% in CR mice at most times. Feeding induced glutaminase mRNA, and carbamyl phosphate synthetase I and glutamine synthase activity (and mRNA). They were each approximately twofold or higher in CR mice. These results indicate that in mice, CR maintains higher rates of gluconeogenesis and protein catabolism, even in the hours after feeding. The data are consistent with the idea that CR continuously promotes the turnover and replacement of extrahepatic proteins.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2001 Apr;928:296-304
Calorie restriction enhances the _expression of key metabolic enzymes associated with protein renewal during aging.
Spindler SR.
Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Riverside 92521, USA.

Our studies show that dietary caloric restriction (CR) alters the _expression of key metabolic enzymes in a manner consistent with an increased rate of extrahepatic protein turnover and renewal during aging. Of the key hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme genes affected by CR, glucose 6-phosphatase mRNA increased 1.7- and 2.3-fold in young and old CR mice. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA increased 2-fold in young mice, and its mRNA and activity increased 2.5- and 1.7-fold in old mice. These changes indicate that CR enhances the enzymatic capacity for gluconeogenesis. The carbon required for gluconeogenesis appears to be generated from peripheral protein turnover. Muscle glutamine synthetase mRNA increased 1.3- and 2.1-fold in young and old CR mice, suggesting increased disposal of nitrogen and carbon derived from protein catabolism for energy. mRNA for the key liver nitrogen disposal enzymes glutaminase, carbamyl phosphate synthase I, and tyrosine aminotransferase were increased by 2.4-, 1.8-, and 1.8-fold in CR mice. Consistent with increased hepatic nitrogen disposal, hepatic glutamine synthetase mRNA and activity were each decreased about 40% in CR mice. Together, these and our other published data suggest that CR enhances and maintains protein turnover, and thus protein renewal, into old age. These effects are likely to resist the well-documented decline in whole body protein renewal with age. Enhanced renewal may reduce the level of damaged and toxic proteins that accumulate during aging, contributing to the extension of life span by CR.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000 Nov;55(11):B522-9
Reversible effects of long-term caloric restriction on protein oxidative damage.
Forster MJ, Sohal BH, Sohal RS.
Department of Pharmacology, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, 76107, USA.

The age-associated increase in oxidative damage in ad libitum-fed mice is attenuated in mice fed calorically restricted (CR) diets. The objective of this study was to determine if this effect results from a slowing of age-related accumulation of oxidative damage, or from a reversible decrease of oxidative damage by caloric restriction. To address these possibilities, crossover studies were conducted in C57BL/6 mice aged 15 to 22 months that had been maintained, after 4 months of age, on ad libitum (AL) or a 60% of AL caloric regimen. One half of the mice in these groups were switched to the opposite regimen of caloric intake for periods up to 6 weeks, and protein oxidative damage (measured as carbonyl concentration and loss of sulfhydryl content) was measured in homogenates of brain and heart. In AL-fed mice, the protein carbonyl content increased with age, whereas the sulfhydryl content decreased. Old mice maintained continuously under CR had reduced levels of protein oxidative damage when compared with the old mice fed AL. The effects of chronic CR on the carbonyl content of the whole brain and the sulfhydryl content of the heart were fully reversible within 3-6 weeks following reinstatement of AL feeding. The effect of chronic CR on the sulfhydryl content of the brain cortex was only partially reversible. The introduction of CR for 6 weeks in the old mice resulted in a reduction of protein oxidative damage (as indicated by whole brain carbonyl content and cortex sulfhydryl), although this effect was not equivalent to that of CR from 4 months of age. The introduction of CR did not affect the sulfhydryl content of the heart. Overall, the current findings indicate that changes in the level of caloric intake may reversibly affect the concentration of oxidized proteins and sufhydryl content. In addition, chronic restriction of caloric intake also retards the age-associated accumulation of oxidative damage. The magnitude of the reversible and chronic effects appears to be dependent upon the tissue examined and the nature of the oxidative alteration.

Exp Gerontol 1992;27(2):191-200
The influence of age and chronic restricted feeding on protein synthesis in the small intestine of the rat.
Merry BJ, Lewis SE, Goldspink DF.
Institute of Human Ageing, University of Liverpool, UK.

Rates of protein synthesis (measured in vivo) and growth of the small intestine were studied as a function of age in ad libitum fed (control) and chronic dietary-restricted rats. At weaning, the fractional rates of synthesis in the mucosal and muscularis externa and serosal layers of the small intestine of control animals were similarly high (90-100% per day). Although these rates subsequently declined with age in the muscularis externa and serosa, they remained constant in the mucosa. Restricted feeding (50% reduced intake), when imposed from weaning onwards, significantly extends the maximum life span of rodents. However, the change in nutritional status slows the accumulation of protein, RNA, and DNA in both layers of the small intestine. Although underfeeding did not prevent the age-related fall in muscularis externa and serosal protein synthesis, significantly higher rates (both fractional and per ribosome) were found when compared age for age with controls. Mucosal fractional synthetic rates were similarly increased by the reduced food intake. These changes in protein turnover in the small intestine are consistent with the higher rates of whole body turnover previously observed in chronically underfed rats.

Exp Gerontol 1985;20(5):253-63
The effects of aging and chronic dietary restriction on whole body growth and protein turnover in the rat.
Lewis SE, Goldspink DF, Phillips JG, Merry BJ, Holehan AM.

Changes in whole body growth, nucleic acids, and protein turnover have been studied in conjunction with ageing and chronic dietary restriction. Normal developmental changes between weaning and senescence included progressive decreases in the fractional rates of growth, protein synthesis, and protein breakdown; the decline in the synthetic rate correlating with decreases in the ribosomal capacity. Dietary intervention was imposed at weaning and involved pair feeding to 50% of the ad libitum food intake. Although this regime slowed whole body growth by retarding the developmental decline in protein turnover, growth was extended into the second and third years of life. The dietary-induced increase in longevity resulting from a retardation of the ageing process(es) appears therefore to be associated with an enhanced turnover of proteins during the major portion of the life span of dietary restricted rats. These observations are strange as up to 50% of basal metabolic rate may be due to the energy requirements for protein synthesis. So an increased protein synthesisi in caloric restricted animals becomes difficult to reconcile with the sharply decreased energy availability in these seme animals, althouh on a lean body mass basis, these may be no decrease. (from Weindruch & Walford 1988).

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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