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FOOD TO EAT. DISHES AND MENUS

 
 
  BREAD, CEREALS, PASTA, FIBER  
   
 
Buckwheat
Cereals - Rolled Oats
Barley
Millet
Brown Rice
Wheat Bran
Wheat Flour
Wheat Germ
White Rice
Breads
Pasta
 
   BUCKWHEAT 
   
J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Feb 26;51(5):1500-5
Buckwheat honey increases serum antioxidant capacity in humans.
Gheldof N, Wang XH, Engeseth NJ.
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 259 ERML, 1201 West Gregory Drive, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, USA.

Honey has been known to exert significant in vitro antioxidant activity, in part due to its phenolic content. However, conclusions that the antioxidants in honey are or are not efficacious in the human body cannot be reached if its antioxidant action is not assessed as part of a human study. In the present study, the acute effect of consumption of 500 mL of water, water with buckwheat honey, black tea, black tea with sugar, or black tea with buckwheat honey on serum oxidative reactions was examined in 25 healthy men. Antioxidant capacity of human serum samples was measured using different methods: the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, ex vivo susceptibility of serum lipoprotein to Cu(2+)-induced oxidation, and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The results showed that the serum antioxidant capacity determined by ORAC increased significantly (p < 0.05) by 7% following consumption of buckwheat honey in water. No significant changes in serum antioxidant capacity could be established after the consumption of any of the other beverages. Ex vivo serum lipoprotein oxidation and TBARS values were not significantly altered after consumption of any of the five beverages. This study provides primary evidence of the in vivo antioxidant activity of buckwheat honey. However, long-term studies and epidemiological data are necessary to investigate whether honey consumption can exert overall antioxidant-related health benefits.

   
   
Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Jan;3(1):129-36
Anti-allergic action of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) grain extract.
Kim CD, Lee WK, No KO, Park SK, Lee MH, Lim SR, Roh SS.
Oriental Hospital, Oriental Medical College of Daejeon University, 22-5 Daeheung-dong, 301-724, Daejeon, South Korea.

The anti-allergic action of buckwheat grain extract (BGE) was investigated using rodent experimental models. The oral, intraperitoneal and intradermal administration of BGE significantly inhibited the compound 48/80-induced vascular permeability documented by Evans blue extravasation. In addition, BGE showed potent inhibitory effect on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE when orally administered. In an in vitro study, BGE revealed to possess inhibitory potential on the compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). Moreover, BGE inhibited the IL-4 and TNF-alpha mRNA induction by PMA and A23187 in human leukemia mast cells, HMC-1. Taken together, these results suggest that anti-allergic action of BGE may be due to the inhibition of histamine release and cytokine gene _expression in the mast cells.

   
   
Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Mar;24(3):209-13
Antioxidant activities of buckwheat hull extract toward various oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo.
Mukoda T, Sun B, Ishiguro A.
Department of Biochemistry, Amino Up Chemical Co., Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

We have undertaken four basic in vitro studies and an animal experiment to obtain information about the antioxidant activities of buckwheat hull extract (BWHE). In the in vitro studies, BWHE scavenged super oxide anion produced in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system (IC50=11.4 microg phenolic compound/ml), and strongly inhibited autoxidation of linoleic acid (IC50=6.2 microg phenolic compound/ml). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation induced by Cu2+ ion was also protected by BWHE. In the animal experiment, ddY mice were fed a standard diet supplemented with 0.75% BWHE for 14 d. In blood, liver and brain of the mice TBARS and fluorescent substance concentration were significantly decreased compared with those of non-treated mice. SOD like activity in serum also significantly rose by BWHE treatment. BWHE was shown to be effective for protecting biological systems against various oxidative stresses in vitro, and to have antioxidant activity in vivo.

   
   
J Nutr. 1997 Jul;127(7):1395-400
Consumption of buckwheat protein lowers plasma cholesterol and raises fecal neutral sterols in cholesterol-Fed rats because of its low digestibility.
Kayashita J, Shimaoka I, Nakajoh M, Yamazaki M, Kato N.
Development, Health Care, Kissei Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Yoshino, Matsumoto 399, Japan.

Buckwheat protein product (BWP) has a strong hypocholesterolemic activity in rats fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. In this study, we examined the influence of BWP on fecal excretion of sterols and nitrogen in rats fed a diet containing 5 g/kg cholesterol and 1.25 g/kg sodium cholate, and we examined whether the cholesterol-lowering activity of BWP is due to its low digestibility. In Experiment 1, rats fed BWP for 3 wk had significantly lower concentrations of plasma cholesterol and enhanced excretion of fecal total neutral sterols and nitrogen compared with rats fed casein. There was a significant correlation between fecal total neutral sterols and nitrogen (r = 0.89, P < 0.01). Fecal excretion of acidic sterols was unaffected by BWP. In Experiment 2, plasma cholesterol in rats fed trypsin-digested BWP for 2 wk was significantly higher than that in rats fed intact BWP. In Experiment 3, rats were fed BWP, low-molecular-weight fraction of the digest of BWP (LMF ) or high-molecular-weight fraction of the digest of BWP (HMF ) for 3 wk. Plasma cholesterol was lower in the BWP group than in the LMF group (P < 0.05), whereas that in the HMF group was intermediate. The in vitro digestibility of BWP with pepsin and pancreatin was significantly lower than that of casein. The results suggest that the cholesterol-lowering effect of BWP is mediated by higher fecal excretion of neutral sterols and that lower digestibility of BWP is at least partially responsible for the effect.

   CEREALS - ROLLED OATS
   
Diabet Med. 1989 May-Jun;6(4):337-41
Postprandial glucose and insulin responses to rolled oats ingested raw, cooked or as a mixture with raisins in normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patients.
Rasmussen O, Winther E, Hermansen K.
Second University Clinic of Internal Medicine, Aarhus Kommune-hospital, Denmark.

Cooking and processing of food may account for differences in blood glucose and insulin responses to food with similar contents of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. The present study was carried out to see if short-term cooking of rolled oats caused an increase in blood glucose. Furthermore, we wanted to see if dried fruit could substitute for some of the starch without deterioration of the postprandial blood glucose response. We therefore compared the blood glucose and insulin responses to three isocaloric, carbohydrate equivalent meals in 11 normal subjects and 9 Type 2 diabetic patients. Meals composed either of raw rolled oats, oatmeal porridge or a mixture of raw rolled oats with raisins were served. In normal subjects, the three meals produced similar glucose (75 +/- 22, 51 +/- 16 and 71 +/- 23 (+/- SE) mmol l-1 180 min, respectively) and insulin response curves (3160 +/- 507, 2985 +/- 632 and 2775 +/- 398 mU l-1 180 min, respectively). Type 2 diabetic patients also showed similar postprandial blood glucose (515 +/- 95, 531 +/- 83 and 409 +/- 46 mmol l-1 180 min, respectively) and insulin (5121 +/- 850, 6434 +/- 927 and 6021 +/- 974 mU l-1 180 min, respectively) responses to the three meals. Thus short-term cooking of rolled oats has no deleterious effect on blood glucose and insulin responses, and substitution of 25% of the starch meal with simple sugars (raisins) did not affect the blood glucose or insulin responses.

   
   
Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Oct;34(10):2061-7
The effect of rolled oats on blood lipids and fecal steroid excretion in man.
Judd PA, Truswell AS.
Rolled oats (125 g daily) were substituted for breakfast cereals and wheat flour in the metabolically controlled diets of 10 subjects for 3 wk. Fat and energy intakes in the 2-wk control periods before and after the oat period were adjusted by addition of an oil with a similar fatty acid composition to the lipid in the oats. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were reduced in seven of 10 subjects, but over the whole group the mean reduction of 8% was not significant (0.05 less than p less than 0.01). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and plasma triglyceride levels were unchanged. Fecal fat excretion was increased by 47% (p less 0.005) and fecal bile acid excretion by 35% (p less than 0.01) but neutral steroid excretion was unchanged on the oatmeal diet.

   
   
Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Apr;77(4):967-74
Whole-grain rye and wheat foods and markers of bowel health in overweight middle-aged men.
McIntosh GH, Noakes M, Royle PJ, Foster PR.
Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation Health Sciences and Nutrition, Adelaide, Australia.

BACKGROUND: Whole-grain cereal foods including rye have been identified as providing significant health benefits that do not occur when refined-cereal foods are ingested. OBJECTIVES: Foods (90 g) containing whole-grain rye flour and whole-grain wheat flour were compared with low-fiber refined-cereal foods for their effects on markers of bowel health and the metabolic markers insulin and glucose. DESIGN: Three 4-wk interventions were undertaken in a randomized crossover design with 28 overweight men aged 40-65 y who had no history of bowel disease. Against a background intake of 14 g dietary fiber (DF), the men were fed low-fiber cereal grain foods providing 5 g DF for a total of 19 g DF/d. High-fiber wheat foods provided 18 g DF, and high-fiber rye foods provided 18 g DF, both giving a total of 32 g DF/d. Fecal samples (48-h) and fasting and postprandial blood samples were collected at the end of each period and assayed. RESULTS: Both high-fiber rye and wheat foods increased fecal output by 33-36% (P = 0.004) and reduced fecal beta-glucuronidase activity by 29% (P = 0.027). Postprandial plasma insulin was decreased by 46-49% (P = 0.0001) and postprandial plasma glucose by 16-19% (P = 0.0005). Rye foods were associated with significantly (P = 0.0001) increased plasma enterolactone (47% and 71%) and fecal butyrate (26% and 36%), relative to wheat and low-fiber options, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: High-fiber rye and wheat food consumption improved several markers of bowel and metabolic health relative to that of low-fiber food. Fiber from rye appears more effective than that from wheat in overall improvement of biomarkers of bowel health.

   
   
Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;77(2):385-91
High-fiber rye bread and insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women.
Juntunen KS, Laaksonen DE, Poutanen KS, Niskanen LK, Mykkanen HM.
Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.

BACKGROUND: Fiber and whole-cereal intakes may protect against hyperinsulinemia and the risk of type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study whether the long-term use of high-fiber rye bread and white-wheat bread modifies glucose and insulin metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women. DESIGN: The study was a randomized crossover trial consisting of 8-wk test and 8-wk washout periods. The subjects were 20 postmenopausal women [macro x +/- SD age: 59 +/- 6.0 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 27.5 +/- 2.9; baseline fasting serum cholesterol: 6.5 +/- 0.8 mmol/L], of whom 3 had impaired glucose tolerance as determined by a 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test. The test breads were high-fiber rye and white-wheat breads, planned to make up > or =20% of energy. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of plasma glucose and insulin at the beginning and at the end of both bread periods. The frequently sampled intravenous-glucose-tolerance test was performed at the run-in and at the end of both bread periods. The acute insulin response, insulin sensitivity, and glucose effectiveness were calculated. RESULTS: The rye bread made up 23.4 +/- 4.3% and wheat bread 26.7 +/- 8.2% of total energy intake. Compared with that during the run-in period, the acute insulin response increased significantly more during the rye bread period (9.9 +/- 24.2%) than during the wheat bread period (2.8 +/- 36.3%; P = 0.047). Other measured variables did not change significantly during the study. CONCLUSIONS: Modification of carbohydrate intake by high-fiber rye bread did not alter insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal, hypercholesterolemic women. High-fiber rye bread appears to enhance insulin secretion, possibly indicating improvement of b cell function.

   
   
J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Aug;49(8):4090-6
Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydrodimers on human low-density lipoproteins.
Andreasen MF, Landbo AK, Christensen LP, Hansen A, Meyer AS.
Department of Horticulture, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Kirstinebjergvej 10, DK-5792 Aarslev, Denmark.

Dietary antioxidants that protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation may help to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The antioxidant activities of purified monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates and of phenolic extracts from rye (whole grain, bran, and flour) were investigated using an in vitro copper-catalyzed human LDL oxidation assay. The most abundant ferulic acid dehydrodimer (diFA) found in rye, 8-O-4-diFA, was a slightly better antioxidant than ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of the 8-5-diFA was comparable to that of ferulic acid, but neither 5-5-diFA nor 8-5-benzofuran-diFA inhibited LDL oxidation when added at 10-40 microM. The antioxidant activity of the monomeric hydroxycinnamates decreased in the following order: caffeic acid > sinapic acid > ferulic acid > p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of rye extracts was significantly correlated with their total content of monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates, and the rye bran extract was the most potent. The data suggest that especially rye bran provides a source of dietary phenolic antioxidants that may have potential health effects.

   BARLEY
   
Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Jan;61(1):75-81
Influence of the physical form of barley grain on the digestion of its starch in the human small intestine and implications for health.
Livesey G, Wilkinson JA, Roe M, Faulks R, Clark S, Brown JC, Kennedy H, Elia M.
Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, UK.

It has been suggested that incomplete digestion of cereal starch explains the low energy values of certain cereals of large particle size. We used human subjects with ileostomies to investigate the digestion of barley and to determine whether the physical form of barley affects stomal excretion of starch, glucooligosaccharides, nitrogen, fat, and calculated energy. Only 2 +/- 1% of starch remained undigested after finely milled barley was eaten, but after flaked barley was eaten 17 +/- 1% resisted digestion, partly as oligosaccharides (G1-G10) but largely as intact unpitted starch granules bound by intact cell walls. The calculated energy excretion from the stoma was three times higher after flaked than after milled barley [51.5 decreasing to 15.3 kJ/g nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP, P < 0.001]. NSP, starch, and fat made almost equal contributions to the higher energy excretion. It is concluded that possibly the botanical source of cereals and certainly processing, other than retrogradation of the starch, are important determinants of starch digestibility and energy value. Possible clinical implications are introduced.

   
   
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2002 Apr;48(2):165-8
Amelioratory effect of barley tea drinking on blood fluidity.
Suganuma H, Inakuma T, Kikuchi Y.
Research Institute, Kagome Co., Ltd., Nasu-gun, Tochigi, Japan.

Effects of barley tea drinking on blood fluidity were evaluated by measuring the passage time of whole blood with a microchannel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN). The ingestion of barley tea in 250 mL amounts decreased the passage time of whole blood, but this did not occur with the ingestion of the same volume of water. 2,3,5-Trimethyl pyrazine at the same level as in barley tea also caused a significantly decreased time of blood passage in vitro. This suggests that alkylpyrazines may serve as factors affecting the blood fluidity in barley tea drinking.

   
   
J Nutr. 2002 Jun;132(6):1173-5
Barley bread containing lactic acid improves glucose tolerance at a subsequent meal in healthy men and women.
Ostman EM, Liljeberg Elmstahl HG, Bjorck IM.
Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.

In the present study, we evaluated whether a low glycemic index (GI) breakfast with lactic acid bread had an effect on glucose tolerance and insulinemia at a subsequent high GI lunch meal. A barley bread containing lactic acid and a reference barley bread were consumed in the morning after an overnight fast in random order by 10 healthy men and women. Four hours after the breakfasts, the subjects ate a standardized high GI lunch, and the blood glucose and insulin responses were measured for the next 3 h. Significant lowerings of the incremental glycemic area (-23%, P = 0.033) and of the glucose response at 95 min were found after the lunch meal when the barley bread with lactic acid was given as a breakfast. At 45 min after the lunch meal, the insulin level was significantly lower (-21%, P = 0.045) after the lactic acid bread breakfast, compared with the barley bread breakfast without lactic acid. We concluded that barley bread containing lactic acid eaten at breakfast has the potential to improve second-meal glucose tolerance at a high GI lunch meal 4 h later.

   
   
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Dec;12(12):1225-30
Treatment of ulcerative colitis with germinated barley foodstuff feeding: a pilot study.
Mitsuyama K, Saiki T, Kanauchi O, Iwanaga T, Tomiyasu N, Nishiyama T, Tateishi H, Shirachi A, Ide M, Suzuki A, Noguchi K, Ikeda H, Toyonaga A, Sata M.
Second Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan.

BACKGROUND: Germinated barley foodstuff (GBF) has been shown to attenuate intestinal injury in animal models, largely by increasing luminal short-chain fatty acid production. AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of GBF in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Ten patients with active UC received 30 g of GBF daily for 4 weeks in an open-label treatment protocol while the baseline anti-inflammatory therapy was continued. The response to treatment was evaluated clinically and endoscopically. Pre- and post-treatment stool concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were measured by gas-liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Patients showed improvement in their clinical activity index scores, with a significant decrease in the score from 6.9+/-1.4 to 2.8+/-1.5 (mean+/-S.E.M., P < 0.05). The endoscopic index score fell from 6.1+/-2.3 to 3.8+/-2.3 (P < 0.0001). Patients showed an increase in stool butyrate concentrations after GBF treatment (P < 0.05). No side-effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Oral GBF therapy may have a place in management of ulcerative colitis, but controlled studies are needed to demonstrate its efficacy in the treatment of this disorder.

   
   
J Am Diet Assoc. 1994 Jan;94(1):65-70
Cholesterol-lowering effect of barley bran flour and oil.
Lupton JR, Robinson MC, Morin JL.
Nutrition Faculty, Texas A&M University, College Station 77843-2471.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of adding barley bran flour and a barley oil extract to a fat-modified diet on serum lipids in persons with hypercholesterolemia. DESIGN: The basic design of the study was a randomized, 30-day intervention trial. It included a neutral-fiber control group and a 1-week preintervention period for the collection of baseline data. SUBJECTS: The subjects were 79 men and women with hypercholesterolemia. Subjects had a mean age of 48.2 years, and all completed the study. INTERVENTION: All participants were instructed to follow the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) step 1 diet and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: 20 g added cellulose, 3 g added barley oil extract, or 30 g added barley bran flour. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured, along with serum triglycerides, before the intervention, at week 1, at week 3, and at the end of the intervention. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Student's paired t test was used to detect significant changes within each treatment group from baseline to the end of the 30-day intervention. In addition, Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to detect significant correlations between the variables measured. RESULTS: Addition of barley bran flour significantly (P = .0001) decreased total serum cholesterol (-0.60 mmol/L) as did addition of barley oil (-0.50 mmol/L; P = .002) after 30 days of intervention. Similarly, LDL-C decreased 6.5% with addition of barley bran flour (P = .036) and 9.2% with addition of barley oil (P = .003). Total serum cholesterol or LDL-C of the cellulose control group did not decrease significantly over the same period. HDL-C decreased significantly in the cellulose control group and the barley bran flour group (-0.15 mmol/L, P = .012, and -0.15 mmol/L, P = .006, respectively), but not in the barley oil group. CONCLUSION: We conclude that addition of barley bran flour or barley oil enhances the cholesterol-lowering effect of the NCEP step 1 diet in individuals with hypercholesterolemia.

   MILLET
   
J Agric Food Chem. 2002 May 8;50(10):3030-6
Evaluation of the nutritional characteristics of a finger millet based complementary food.
Mbithi-Mwikya S, Van Camp J, Mamiro PR, Ooghe W, Kolsteren P, Huyghebaert A.
Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium.

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), peanuts (Arachis hypogoea), and mango (Mangifera indica) were processed separately and then combined, on the basis of their amino acid scores and energy content, into a complementary food for children of weaning age. The finger millet and kidney beans were processed by germination, autoclaving, and lactic acid fermentation. A mixture containing, on a dry matter basis, 65.2, 19.1, 8.0, and 7.7% of the processed finger millet, kidney beans, peanuts, and mango, respectively, gave a composite protein with an in vitro protein digestibility of 90.2% and an amino acid chemical score of 0.84. This mixture had an energy density of 16.3 kJ.g(-1) of dry matter and a decreased antinutrient content and showed a measurable improvement in the in vitro extractability for calcium, iron, and zinc. A 33% (w/v) pap made from a mix of the processed ingredients had an energy density of 5.4 kJ.g(-1) of pap, which is sufficient to meet the energy requirements of well-nourished children of 6-24 months of age at three servings a day and at the FAO average breast-feeding frequency.

   BROWN RICE
   
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000 Nov;9(11):1163-70
Characterization of potentially chemopreventive phenols in extracts of brown rice that inhibit the growth of human breast and colon cancer cells.
Hudson EA, Dinh PA, Kokubun T, Simmonds MS, Gescher A.
Medical Research Council Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, United Kingdom.

Rice is a staple diet in Asia, where the incidence of breast and colon cancer is markedly below that in the Western world. We investigated potential colon and breast tumor-suppressive properties of rice, testing the hypothesis that rice contains phenols that interfere with the proliferation or colony-forming ability of breast or colon cells. Brown rice, its white milled counterpart, and bran from brown rice were boiled and extracted with ethyl acetate. The extracts were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eight phenols, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, vanillic acid, methoxycinnamic acid, and tricin, were identified in the extracts of bran and intact brown rice. These extracts were separated into nine fractions by column chromatography. The effect of bran extract and its fractions at 100 microg/ml on cell viability and colony-forming ability of human-derived breast and colon cell lines was assessed. Bran extract decreased numbers of viable MDA MB 468 and HBL 100 breast cells and colon-derived SW 480 and human colonic epithelial cells as judged by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4 -sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay. It also reduced colony formation of SW 480 colon and MDA MB 468 breast cells. Of the eight phenols identified in the brown rice bran, when applied at 50 microM, caffeic acid decreased numbers of all cell types except HBL 100. Tricin, ferulic acid, and methoxycinnamic acid interfered with cell viability in one or more cell lines. Tricin (50 microM) and the other phenols (200 microM) inhibited colony formation of SW 480 cells. Clonogenicity of MDA MB 468 cells was inhibited by caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and tricin (50 microM). Tricin was the most potent anticlonogenic of the compounds with IC50s of 16 microM in the SW 480 colon cells and 0.6 microM in the MDA MB 468 breast cells. The results suggest that: (a) brown rice and bran contain compounds with putative cancer chemopreventive properties; (b) certain phenols contained in brown rice bran, e.g., tricin, may be associated with this activity; and (c) these phenols are present at much lower levels in white than in brown rice. Thus, the consumption of rice bran or brown rice instead of milled white rice may be advantageous with respect to cancer prevention.

   
   
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1987 Jun;33(3):207-18
Effects of brown rice on apparent digestibility and balance of nutrients in young men on low protein diets.
Miyoshi H, Okuda T, Okuda K, Koishi H.
Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculity of the Science of Living, Osaka City University, Japan.

The effect of brown rice with low protein intake was studied in five healthy young men. Feces were weighed, the digestibility of nutrients was determined, and blood tests were made. Each subject followed a diet consisting mainly of polished rice for 14 days and one consisting mainly of brown rice for 8 days. Both diets contained 0.5 g protein per kg of body weight. The brown rice diet had 3 times as much dietary fiber as the polished rice diet. On the brown rice diet, fecal weight increased, and apparent digestibility of energy, protein, and fat decreased, as did the absorption rates of Na, K, and P. The nitrogen balance was negative on both diets, but more negative on the brown rice diet. The phosphorus balance on the brown rice diet was significantly negative, but other minerals were not affected by the diet. The levels of cholesterol and minerals in the plasma were not significantly different on the polished rice diet and the brown rice diet. Comparing these results with data on standard protein intake (Miyoshi, H. et al (1986) J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 32, 581-589.), we concluded that brown rice reduced protein digestibility and nitrogen balance.

   WHEAT BRAN
   
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Nov 6;94(21):1620-5
Baseline dietary fiber intake and colorectal adenoma recurrence in the wheat bran fiber randomized trial.
Jacobs ET, Giuliano AR, Roe DJ, Guillen-Rodriguez JM, Alberts DS, Martinez ME.
Arizona Cancer Center and Nutritional Sciences Interdisciplinary Program, University of Arizona, Tucson 85716, USA.

BACKGROUND: The Wheat Bran Fiber (WBF) trial was a double-blind, high-fiber versus low-fiber phase III intervention trial in which participants were randomly assigned to receive a cereal fiber supplement of either 2.0 g/day or 13.5 g/day to assess whether a high-fiber supplement could decrease risk of recurrent colorectal adenomas. Although no effect of the supplement on polyp recurrence was observed, participants consumed a baseline average of 17.5 grams of fiber per day, which may have been sufficient to protect against adenoma recurrence. Therefore, we examined whether baseline fiber intake affected colorectal adenoma recurrence or modified the effect of treatment group in the WBF trial participants. METHODS: Quartiles of baseline fiber intake were calculated on the basis of the distribution in the study population. Odds ratios (ORs) for adenoma recurrence were calculated using the lowest quartile of fiber intake as the reference. The effect of fiber from specific food sources on adenoma recurrence was also assessed. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for adenoma recurrence were 0.79 (0.56 to 1.12), 0.76 (0.54 to 1.08), and 0.83 (0.57 to 1.19) for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively. Fiber from the three primary food sources (fruits; breads, cereals and crackers; and vegetables) had no appreciable effect on adenoma recurrence. Baseline fiber intake also had little effect on adenoma recurrence when the population was stratified by treatment group. In addition, there was no interaction between treatment group and quartile of baseline fiber intake. CONCLUSIONS: No association was found between amount of fiber consumed at baseline and adenoma recurrence in the WBF trial participants. The baseline fiber intake, whether considered as a whole or from specific sources, did not modify the effect of treatment group.

   
   
Diabetes Care. 2002 Sep;25(9):1522-8
Effect of wheat bran on glycemic control and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.
Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Augustin LS, Martini MC, Axelsen M, Faulkner D, Vidgen E, Parker T, Lau H, Connelly PW, Teitel J, Singer W, Vandenbroucke AC, Leiter LA, Josse RG.
Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

OBJECTIVE: Cohort studies indicate that cereal fiber reduces the risk of diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). Therefore, we assessed the effect of wheat bran on glycemic control and CHD risk factors in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 23 subjects with type 2 diabetes (16 men and 7 postmenopausal women) completed two 3-month phases of a randomized crossover study. In the test phase, bread and breakfast cereals were provided as products high in cereal fiber (19 g/day additional cereal fiber). In the control phase, supplements were low in fiber (4 g/day additional cereal fiber). RESULTS: Between the test and control treatments, no differences were seen in body weight, fasting blood glucose, HbA(1c), serum lipids, apolipoproteins, blood pressure, serum uric acid, clotting factors, homocysteine, C-reactive protein, magnesium, calcium, iron, or ferritin. LDL oxidation in the test phase was higher than that seen in the control phase (12.1 +/- 5.4%, P < 0.034). Of the subjects originally recruited, more dropped out of the study for health and food preference reasons from the control phase (16 subjects) than the test phase (11 subjects). CONCLUSIONS: High-fiber cereal foods did not improve conventional markers of glycemic control or risk factors for CHD in type 2 diabetes over 3 months. Possibly longer studies are required to demonstrate the benefits of cereal fiber. Alternatively, cereal fiber in the diet may be a marker for another component of whole grains that imparts health advantages or a healthy lifestyle.

   
   
Mutat Res. 2000 Nov 6;454(1-2):77-88
Antimutagenic effects of wheat bran diet through modification of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes.
Helsby NA, Zhu S, Pearson AE, Tingle MD, Ferguson LR.
Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, 1000, Auckland, New Zealand.

Diets containing wheat bran (WB) protect against cancers of the colon or breast in rats, and may be beneficial in humans. In a previous study of rats treated with the carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), inclusion of 10% wheat bran in the diet led to an apparent reduction in IQ metabolites but not of intact IQ in plasma. In the present study, male Wistar rats were fed diets containing 0, 10 or 20% wheat bran, and effects on xenobiotic metabolising enzymes compared. Wheat bran-supplementation showed differential effects on phase I enzymes, significantly increasing the activity of hepatic cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP3A2, but slightly reducing the activity of CYP1A1/2. The activities of both hepatic phase II detoxification enzymes glutathione-S-transferase and glucuronosyl transferase were also reduced. Western blotting revealed similar effects on _expression of the proteins. Interestingly, the _expression of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes (XME) in the colon appeared to be modulated independently of hepatic XME. Although the wheat bran-supplemented diet still led to an increased _expression of CYP3A, it now slightly increased CYP1A in the colon. However, 20% wheat bran significantly increased the _expression of both glutathione transferase isozymes, GST A1 & A2, in the colon. Natures Gold (NG) is a commercial wheat bran derivative which is lower than wheat bran in dietary fibre, but enriched in vitamins, minerals and various phytochemicals. Dietary supplementation with 20% Natures Gold led to similar trends as seen in wheat bran-fed rats, but more potent effects in both hepatic and colonic enzymes. The significance of these changes for activation of carcinogens to mutagenic metabolites was investigated using the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. The activation of IQ and benzo[a]pyrene, but not cyclophosphamide, to a mutagen by hepatic S9 from wheat bran-fed or Natures Gold-fed rats was significantly reduced compared with S9 from animals on a diet lacking wheat bran. We suggest that modulation of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes may be an important component of cancer protection by wheat bran, and this effect may relate to micronutrients or cancer-protective non-nutrient phytochemicals rather more than to dietary fibre.

   
   
Cancer Res. 2000 Sep 1;60(17):4792-7
Preventive potential of wheat bran fractions against experimental colon carcinogenesis: implications for human colon cancer prevention.
Reddy BS, Hirose Y, Cohen LA, Simi B, Cooma I, Rao CV.
Nutritional Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention Program, American Health Foundation, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA.

Epidemiological studies suggest an inverse relationship between the intake of dietary fiber, particularly fiber from cereal grains, and colon cancer risk. Animal model assays have demonstrated that the protective effects of dietary fiber on colon cancer development depend on the nature and source of the fiber. Wheat bran (WB) appears to inhibit colon tumorigenesis more consistently than do oat bran or corn bran. This study was designed to determine whether specific WB fractions such as WB fiber, WB lipids, or phytic acid differentially affect colon carcinogenesis in a well-established colon cancer model. In addition, the modulating effect of specific fractions of WB on the activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 enzymes were assessed in colon tumors as those have been shown to play a role in tumor progression. At 5 weeks of age, groups of male F344 rats were assigned to one of six diets: a high-fat diet containing 10% WB (control diet) and experimental high-fat diets containing 10% dephytinized WB (WB-P), 10% defatted WB (WB-F), 10% dephytinized and defatted WB (WB-PF), 10% WB-PF fortified with 2% bran oil and/or with 0.4% phytate. At 7 weeks of age, all eats except those in the vehicle-treated groups were given two weekly s.c. injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg body weight/week. They continued to receive their respective diets until 50 weeks after carcinogen treatment and were then killed. Colon tumors were analyzed for iNOS, COX-1, and COX-2 _expression and enzymatic activities. Colon tumors were evaluated histopathologically and classified as adenomas and adenocarcinomas. We found that removal of phytic acid (WB-P) or lipids (WB-F) from WB had no significant effect on colon tumor incidence (% animals with tumors) or multiplicity (tumors/ animal), whereas removal of both phytate and lipids from WB (WB-PF) significantly increased colon tumor multiplicity and volume. Interestingly, WB-PF fortified with excess bran oil or with bran oil plus phytate significantly inhibited colon tumor incidence, multiplicity, and volume; but supplementation of WB-PF with phytate alone had no significant effect on colon tumorigenesis in rats suggesting that lipid fraction of WB possesses tumor-inhibitory properties. Moreover, feeding WB-PF diet significantly increased iNOS, total COX and COX-2 enzyme activities, and iNOS protein _expression in colon tumors as compared with wheat bran control diet. Feeding the WB-PF that was fortified with excess bran oil alone or with bran oil plus phytate significantly suppressed the activities of iNOS and COX-2 as well as the _expression of iNOS and COX-2 in colon tumors compared with that in rats fed the WB diet or WB-PF diet. The study demonstrates for the first time that the lipid fraction of wheat bran has strong colon tumor inhibitor properties. The exact mechanism(s) by which the lipid fraction of WB inhibits colon carcinogenesis in addition to alteration of iNOS and COX activities remains to be elucidated. Additional studies are warranted to identify biologically active constituents of lipid fraction of WB and their relative role in colon tumor inhibition.

   
   
Am J Med. 1999 Jan 25;106(1A):32S-37S
Protective role of wheat bran fiber: data from marker trials.
Earnest DL, Einspahr JG, Alberts DS.
Department of Medicine and the Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson 85724, USA.

The effects of wheat bran fiber on surrogate endpoint biomarkers for colon cancer risk have been studied in rats and humans. In both species, there is little evidence that wheat bran fiber significantly modifies epithelial cell proliferation. In rat studies, however, dietary supplementation with wheat bran fiber has decreased mucosal formation of aberrant crypt foci, an important marker currently used to estimate the efficacy of colon cancer chemoprevention agents. In humans, wheat bran fiber has been shown to consistently decrease fecal bile acid concentrations, mainly by reducing toxic secondary bile acids.

   
   
Dig Dis Sci. 1995 Feb;40(2):349-56
Effect of wheat bran in treatment of chronic nonorganic constipation. A double-blind controlled trial.
Badiali D, Corazziari E, Habib FI, Tomei E, Bausano G, Magrini P, Anzini F, Torsoli A.
Cattedra di Gastroenterologia I, Universita La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

After a two-week basal period, 24 patients were randomly allocated to receive, with a crossover double-blind design, for two consecutive four-week periods, bran (20 g/24 hr) or placebo. The daily intake of water and dietary fibers was standardized. Symptomatology, oroanal transit time, bowel frequency, and stool weight were assessed in basal conditions and at week 4 and 8 of the treatment. Oroanal transit time decreased and bowel frequency and stool weight increased significantly during both bran and placebo administration in comparison with basal period. Bran treatment was more effective than placebo in improving bowel frequency and oroanal transit. During bran treatment oroanal transit time became normal only in patients with slow colonic transit and not in those with slow rectal transit. Neither the occurrence nor the severity of the most frequent accompanying symptoms of chronic constipation differed significantly between placebo and bran treatments.

   WHEAT FLOUR
   
Int J Cancer. 1993 Apr 1;53(6):902-6
Corn and wheat-flour consumption and mortality from esophageal cancer in Shanxi, China.
Chen F, Cole P, Mi Z, Xing LY.
Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, School of Medicine, FL 33101.

In order to identify factors that may explain the great variation in mortality from esophageal cancer in Shanxi Province, China, an ecological study was carried out in 21 communes in that province. Mortality data were obtained from the registration records of the population of 148,928 during 1983 to 1988, which provided 744,640 person-years of observation. The data regarding average consumption of each kind of grain, potatoes and sweet potatoes were from food allocation records. The data regarding consumption of meat, eggs, fruit, vegetables and the data regarding alcohol drinking were from interviews. The concentrations of nitrite and of nitrate in pickled vegetables and in drinking water were measured. A significant positive relation was found between mortality rate and the consumption of dietary corn and wheat flour. Also, a significant inverse relation was found between the mortality rate and the dietary sorghum and millet level. The age- and sex-adjusted mortality-rate ratio of esophageal cancer for residents in the third and highest quartiles of corn- and wheat-flour consumption are 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-2.0) and 3.2 (2.5-4.2), respectively, compared with those in the lowest quartile. Other factors studied did not contribute to the great variation in esophageal cancer mortality in the areas studied.

   WHEAT GERM
   
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001 Dec;65(6):705-10
Wheat germ supplement reduces cyst and trophozoite passage in people with giardiasis.
Grant J, Mahanty S, Khadir A, MacLean JD, Kokoskin E, Yeager B, Joseph L, Diaz J, Gotuzzo E, Mainville N, Ward BJ.
Center for the Study of Host Resistance, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia is a major cause of waterborne enteric disease worldwide. Lectins are proteins that bind to carbohydrate (sugar) moieties. Potential targets for lectins are found on the surface of most single-celled organisms. Modest concentrations of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) have been shown to inhibit G. lamblia excystation and trophozoite growth in vitro and can reduce cyst passage in mice infected with the closely related protozoan parasite, G. muris. Commercial preparations of wheat germ (WG) contain 13-53 microg of WGA per gram. We performed a double-masked, placebo-controlled study of dietary supplementation with WG in 63 subjects with giardiasis in Montreal and Lima (25 asymptomatic patients passing cysts; 38 patients with symptoms). Asymptomatic subjects received WG (2 g, 3 times a day) or placebo (cornstarch, 2 g, 3 times a day) for 10 days, followed by metronidazole (250 mg 3 times a day) for 7 days. Symptomatic subjects received metronidazole (250 mg 3 times a day) plus either WG or placebo for 7 days. Stool specimens were collected every day (Montreal) or every other day (Lima) for 10 days and on Day 35 for microscopic examination and coproantigen determination. Subjects kept a diary of symptoms for 10 days after recruitment. In asymptomatic subjects, both cyst passage and coproantigen levels were reduced by approximately 50% in those taking WG compared with the placebo group (P < 0.01 and P = 0.06, respectively). In symptomatic subjects, cyst passage and coproantigen levels fell precipitously in response to metronidazole therapy, and there were no clinically important differences between those receiving supplemental WG or placebo. However, symptoms appear to have resolved more rapidly in the subjects taking WG in addition to metronidazole. The WG supplement was well tolerated in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. These data suggest that components of WG, possibly WGA, either alone or in combination with antiprotozoal agents, can influence the course of human giardiasi.

   
   
Pancreas. 2001 Aug;23(2):141-7
Wheat germ extract decreases glucose uptake and RNA ribose formation but increases fatty acid synthesis in MIA pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.
Boros LG, Lapis K, Szende B, Tomoskozi-Farkas R, Balogh A, Boren J, Marin S, Cascante M, Hidvegi M.
UCLA School of Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Research and Education Institute, Torrance, California 90502, USA.

The fermented wheat germ extract with standardized benzoquinone composition has potent tumor propagation inhibitory properties. The authors show that this extract induces profound metabolic changes in cultured MIA pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells when the [1,2-13C2]glucose isotope is used as the single tracer with biologic gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. MIA cells treated with 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/mL wheat germ extract showed a dose-dependent decrease in cell glucose consumption. uptake of isotope into ribosomal RNA (2.4%, 9.4%, and 28.0%), and release of 13CO2. Conversely, direct glucose oxidation and ribose recycling in the pentose cycle showed a dose-dependent increase of 1.2%, 20.7%, and 93.4%. The newly synthesized fraction of cell palmitate and the 13C enrichment of acetyl units were also significantly increased with all doses of wheat germ extract. The fermented wheat germ extract controls tumor propagation primarily by regulating glucose carbon redistribution between cell proliferation-related and cell differentiation-related macromolecules. Wheat germ extract treatment is likely associated with the phosphorylation and transcriptional regulation of metabolic enzymes that are involved in glucose carbon redistribution between cell proliferation-related structural and functional macromolecules (RNA, DNA) and the direct oxidative degradation of glucose, which have devastating consequences for the proliferation and survival of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells in culture.

   
   
J Nutr. 1992 Feb;122(2):317-26
Long-term wheat germ intake beneficially affects plasma lipids and lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic human subjects.
Cara L, Armand M, Borel P, Senft M, Portugal H, Pauli AM, Lafont H, Lairon D.
Unite de recherche sur le transport des lipides, Unite 130, INSERM (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), Marseille, France.

In previous short-term studies in rats and humans, the ingestion of raw wheat germ lowered plasma triglycerides and cholesterol. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the possible long-term effects of wheat germ intake. Diet supplementation with raw wheat germ or partially defatted wheat germ was tested in two separate groups of 10 and 9 free-living human subjects, respectively. They all exhibited hypercholesterolemia (6.14-9.67 mmol/L cholesterol) and 11 had hypertriglyceridemia. None was diabetic. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study, after 4 wk of 20 g/d wheat germ intake, after 14 additional weeks of 30 g/d wheat germ intake and after 12 wk without any supplementation. Dietary records were kept for seven and three consecutive days, before and during the wheat germ intake periods, respectively. Raw wheat germ intake significantly decreased plasma cholesterol (-8.7%) and tended to reduce VLDL cholesterol (-19.6%) after 4 wk. After 14 additional weeks, plasma cholesterol (-7.2%) and LDL cholesterol (-15.4%) remained lower and plasma triglycerides (-11.3%) tended to be lower. The apo B:apo A1 ratio significantly decreased after both periods. Partially defatted wheat germ transiently decreased plasma triglycerides and cholesterol after a 4-wk intake. The present data indicate that wheat germ reduces cholesterolemia in the long term and could play a beneficial role in the dietary management of type IIa and IIb hyperlipidemia.

   
   
Immunology. 1982 Nov;47(3):551-6
Stimulation of colony formation and growth factor production of human T lymphocytes by wheat germ lectin.
Ulmer AJ, Scholz W, Flad HD.

Wheat germ lectin (WGL) induced proliferation of T-lymphocyte colony-forming units (TL-CFU) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in a one stage agar culture needing higher cell numbers than phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). However, WGL preactivated TL-CFU in a first stage liquid culture for the growth of PHA-dependent T-lymphocyte colonies in a subsequent agar culture. These results suggested that WGL and PHA have biological activities in common. WGL and PHA both induced the _expression of Interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptors by PBMC to become responsive to IL-2, although production of IL-2 by WGL-stimulated PBMC was low compared with PHA-stimulated PBMC. This might account for the low proliferative response of PBMC to WGL.

   WHITE RICE
   
Gen Dent. 2001 Nov-Dec;49(6):604-7
Rice as a vehicle for dietary fluoride uptake.
McIntyre J, Williams P, Ha HD, Najee S, Anh VT, Ivanow G, Ngo H, Fraser M.

The objective of this study was to analyze aspects of the metabolism and bio-availability of fluoride after consumption of a sample of polished white rice containing 5.6 ppm fluoride ion. Up to 400 g of fluoridated rice was consumed by three volunteer adult subjects over specific time periods on two separate occasions. Saliva concentrations were elevated immediately and remained so 90 minutes following ingestion, among other indications. It was concluded that polished rice has the potential to be a useful vehicle for dietary fluoride transport.

   
   
Atherosclerosis. 2002 Mar;161(1):199-207
Dose-dependent suppression of serum cholesterol by tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF25) of rice bran in hypercholesterolemic humans.
Qureshi AA, Sami SA, Salser WA, Khan FA.
Advanced Medical Research, 8251 Raymond Road, Madison, WI 53719, USA.

Tocotrienols are effective in lowering serum total and LDL-cholesterol levels by inhibiting the hepatic enzymic activity of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzymeA (HMG-CoA) reductase through the post-transcriptional mechanism. alpha-Tocopherol, however, has an opposite effect (induces) on this enzyme activity. Since tocotrienols are also converted to tocopherols in vivo, it is necessary not to exceed a certain dose, as this would be counter-productive. The present study demonstrates the effects of various doses of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF25) of stabilized and heated rice bran in hypercholesterolemic human subjects on serum lipid parameters. Ninety (18/group) hypercholesterolemic human subjects participated in this study, which comprised three phases of 35 days each. The subjects were initially placed on the American Heart Association (AHA) Step-1 diet and the effects noted. They were then administered 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/day of TRF25 while on the restricted (AHA) diet. The results show that a dose of 100 mg/day of TRF25 produce maximum decreases of 20, 25, 14 (P<0.05) and 12%, respectively, in serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and triglycerides compared with the baseline values, suggesting that a dose of 100 mg/day TRF25 plus AHA Step-1 diet may be the optimal dose for controlling the risk of coronary heart disease in hypercholesterolemic human subjects.

   
   
Biofactors. 2000;12(1-4):101-5
Chemopreventive effects of coffee bean and rice constituents on colorectal carcinogenesis.
Mori H, Kawabata K, Matsunaga K, Ushida J, Fujii K, Hara A, Tanaka T, Murai H.
Department of Pathology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Japan.

Polyphenolic compound chlorogenic acid (CGA) known to be much contained in coffee beans was found to have a regressive effect on induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as well as on development of ACF in azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. Rice germ and gamma-aminobutyric acid-enriched defatted rice germ inhibited AOM-induced ACF formation and colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. Ferulic acid (FA) also known to be contained in coffee beans and rice prevented AOM-induced ACF formation and intestinal carcinogenesis in rats. Both of food factors, coffee and rice may be of benefit to prevention of human colorectal cancers.

   
   
Contact Dermatitis. 2001 Feb;44(2):91-3
Contact urticaria from rice.
Yamakawa Y, Ohsuna H, Aihara M, Tsubaki K, Ikezawa Z.
Department of Dermatology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan.

A 30-year-old man with atopic dermatitis had had erythema and itching of the hands after washing rice in water, though he had always eaten cooked rice without problems. Handling test with water used to wash regular rice was performed on abraded hands, and produced urticarial erythema after several minutes. Applications of water used to wash allergen-reduced rice were negative for urticarial reaction. Prick test with water used to wash regular rice was +++. However prick test reaction with water used to wash allergen-reduced rice was +. Histamine-release test of regular rice-washing water was grade 3 and that of allergen-reduced rice grade 1. In immunoblotting analysis with regular rice washing water, there were no bands with this patient. These results suggest that the allergen responsible for contact urticaria in this patient might be water-soluble, heat-unstable, and not contained in allergen-reduced rice.

   
   
Nippon Jinzo Gakkai Shi. 2000 Jan;42(1):24-9
Usefulness of the low protein rice on the diet therapy in patients with chronic renal failure.
Mochizuki T, Hara S.
Department of Nephrology, Kameda Medical Center, Chiba, Japan.

Diet therapy for patients with chronic renal failure is based on low protein and high energy. To achieve strict diet therapy, it is necessary to use specially formulated low protein foods. Previously, rice with a low content of protein was not available, but recently, a low protein rice (LGC-1: low glutelin content-1) has been developed. LGC-1 was found to have a low content of glutelin in its seed protein compared to other ordinary rice. Glutelin is the major digestive protein in the rice grain. We studied the usefulness of LGC-1 in the diet therapy of patients with chronic renal failure. Twenty-three patients were placed on the low protein diet (0.6-0.9 g/kg/day) during the pre-study period (a mean of 10 months). Subsequently they were followed with the same diet using LGC-1 for the staple foods during the study period (mean of 7 months). Protein intake and the slope of the reciprocal of serum creatinine did not differ between each study period in all patients. Among the 23 patients, 9 consumed rice mainly as the staple food (120-180 g/day as polished rice: rice group), according to the results of a questionnaire. In the rice group, protein intake decreased (from 47 +/- 9 to 42 +/- 9 g/day, p < 0.05), and the slope of the reciprocal of serum creatinine reduced (from -4.59 +/- 4.33 to -1.47 +/- 3.51 x 10(-4) dl/mg/day, p < 0.05) during the study period, compared with the pre-study period. We conclude that LGC-1 is a useful and effective food for a low protein diet in patients with chronic renal failure, especially, for those who consume rice mainly as their staple food.

   
   
Anticancer Res. 1999 Sep-Oct;19(5A):3651-7
Health benefits of rice bran oil.
Sugano M, Koba K, Tsuji E.
Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Japan.

Although scientific evidence is relatively limited, rice bran oil (RBO) is tenaciously believed to be a healthy vegetable oil in Asian countries. It exerts hypocholesterolemic activity in relation to more commonly used vegetable oils and is characterized by a relatively high content of non-fatty acid components, some of which are known to have beneficial health effects. Components specific for RBO such as gamma-oryzanol and tocotrienols could participate in its hypocholesterolemic effects. In addition, blending RBO with safflower oil, but not with sunflower oil, may magnify the hypocholesterolemic efficacy. This observation is of particular interest with regard to dietary intervention with RBO. The possible mechanism underlying this effect may at least in part be related to the specific triglyceride structure of safflower oil, differing from that of sunflower oil.

   BREADS
   
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Oct;56(10):952-7
Phloem fortification in rye bread elevates serum enterolactone level.
Vanharanta M, Mursu J, Nurmi T, Voutilainen S, Rissanen TH, Salonen R, Adlercreutz H, Salonen JT.
The Research Institute of Public Health, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the lignan content of phloem powder enriched rye bread and to study the dose-response relationship of the effect of dietary plant lignans derived from phloem on intestinal production of enterolactone by measuring enterolactone concentration in serum. DESIGN: A randomized double-blind supplementation trial. SUBJECTS: Seventy-five non-smoking men recruited by newspaper advertisements. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomized to three study groups receiving either rye bread high in phloem (HP, 14% of rye flour substituted with phloem powder), rye bread low in phloem (LP, 7% of rye flour substituted with phloem powder) or placebo rye bread. Participants consumed 70 g of study bread daily for 4 weeks and provided serum samples for enterolactone analysis at baseline and at the end of the intervention. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in serum enterolactone concentration in the LP and HP groups compared with the placebo group (P=0.009 and P=0.003, respectively). Considerable interindividual differences were observed in the response to dietary lignans within the study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that plant lignans attached to insoluble fibre layer in phloem can be further metabolized and converted to enterolactone presumably by the bacteria present in the colon. Phloem powder is useful source of lignans for functional foods aimed to elevate serum enterolactone levels.

   
   
J Nutr. 2000 Sep;130(9):2215-21
Rye bread improves bowel function and decreases the concentrations of some compounds that are putative colon cancer risk markers in middle-aged women and men.
Grasten SM, Juntunen KS, Poutanen KS, Gylling HK, Miettinen TA, Mykkanen HM.
University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Nutrition, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Cereal fiber may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by diluting colonic contents due to increased fecal output, by accelerating intestinal transit, by increasing fecal frequency and by altering bacterial metabolism. The effects of whole-meal rye bread on some putative colon cancer risk markers were investigated in 17 healthy Finnish subjects using a randomized crossover trial with two 4-wk bread consumption periods and a 4-wk washout period between the bread periods. White wheat bread was used as a control. Test breads covered a minimum of 20% of the daily energy intake (range, 4330-14, 033 kJ/d). Intestinal transit time, stool weight, fecal bacterial enzyme activities and short-chain fatty acid, ammonia, diacylglycerol (DAG) and bile acid concentrations in feces (expressed per gram wet feces) were measured. Whole-meal rye bread significantly increased fecal output and fecal frequency and shortened mean intestinal transit time compared with wheat bread in both women and men. Activities of beta-glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase (expressed per gram wet feces) were significantly lower in men and urease activity significantly higher in women during the rye bread period (RBP). Fecal butyrate concentration was higher during the RBP in men. Fecal ammonia and DAG concentrations did not differ between bread periods. Fecal total and secondary bile acid concentrations were significantly lower during RBP in both women and men. This study shows that whole-meal rye bread significantly improves bowel function in healthy adults and may decrease the concentration of some compounds that are putative colon cancer risk markers.

   
   
J Nutr. 2000 Feb;130(2):164-70
Rye bread decreases serum total and LDL cholesterol in men with moderately elevated serum cholesterol.
Leinonen KS, Poutanen KS, Mykkanen HM.
Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Finland.

The objective of this study was to determine the hypocholesterolemic effects of whole meal rye and white wheat breads in healthy humans with elevated serum cholesterol concentrations, and the changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during rye and wheat bread periods. The subjects were 18 men and 22 women with baseline serum cholesterol concentration of 6.4+/-0.2 mmol/L. The study design was a 2x4-wk crossover trial during which each subject randomly consumed rye and wheat breads (20% of daily energy) as part of their usual diet for 4 wk. The bread periods were separated by a 4-wk washout period. Blood samples (after fasting) were collected on two consecutive days at the beginning and end of the bread periods. Serum total cholesterol decreased by 8% (P = 0.002) in men but was not significantly altered in women during the rye bread period. The wheat bread period did not affect any of the variables studied. Analysis of the serum lipids in tertiles of rye bread consumption confirmed the reduction in total cholesterol (P = 0.048) in men and revealed the reduction in LDL cholesterol (P = 0.032); both were dependent on the amount of rye bread consumed (-2, -14 and -10% in total cholesterol and 0, -12 and -12% in LDL cholesterol). Neither rye nor wheat bread influenced the concentrations of glucose and insulin. In conclusion, rye bread is effective in reducing serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in men with elevated serum cholesterol. Good compliance with consuming a relatively large amount of rye bread in the usual diet indicates that rye bread offers a practical dietary means of reducing serum cholesterol in men.

   
   
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 Feb;55(2):137-43
Reduced mortality among whole grain bread eaters in men and women in the Norwegian County Study.
Jacobs DR Jr, Meyer HE, Solvoll K.
Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55454, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To study whether mortality is reduced among whole grain eaters in Norway. DESIGN: Non-interventional, prospective, baseline 1977-1983, followed for mortality through to 1994. SETTING: Three Norwegian counties. SUBJECTS: A total of 16,933 men and 16,915 women; systematic screening of all residents aged 35-56y at baseline, not disabled and free of cardiovascular disease (79% response rate). PREDICTOR VARIABLE: We combined self-report of type and number of bread slices (white, light whole grain, dense whole grain) to form a whole grain bread score, with range 0.05 (1 slice per day, made with 5% whole grain flour) to 5.4 (9 slices per day, made with 60% whole grain flour). RESULTS: Norwegian whole grain bread eaters were less likely to be smokers, were more physically active, had lower serum cholesterol and systolic blood pressure, and ate less total and saturated fat as a proportion of energy intake than white bread eaters. After adjustment for age, energy intake, sex, serum cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, smoking, body mass index, physical activity at leisure and work, and use of cod liver oil or other vitamin supplements, hazard rate ratios (HRR) for total mortality were inverse and graded across whole grain bread score categories (category 5 vs category 1 HRR: 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.89 in men and 0.66, 0.44-0.98 in women). CONCLUSION: Protection by whole grain intake against chronic disease is suggested in Norway, where four times as much whole grain is consumed as in the United States.

   
   
Aust N Z J Public Health. 1998 Apr;22(2):282-5
Panis populi--bread and public health in Australia.
Pearn J.
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland.

The 'standard loaf, 680 gm, white, supermarket-purchased' as expressed in the Consumer Price Index, is but the basic form of bread sold to the Australian public. In the public health context, three themes have been intimately associated with bread--quality control, price control and bread used as a vehicle for supplementary nutritive agents important in preventive medicine. Price control, through assizing, has been a feature of bread marketing in western communities for seven centuries; and bread remains the last item on which price control (although seldom enforced) exists in Australia. Quality control, for public health, is determined both by regulation and by the force of increasingly literate consumers, of whom women occupy the most important determinant. From the preventive medicine point of view, important themes in bread quality, such as its use to reduce laxative sales on the one hand and to reduce the demographic incidence of colonic cancer on the other, remains outside formal regulation. Australia is a relatively conservative nation in the context of nutritional additives. It was not until 1953 that the National Health and Medical Research Council approved the addition of extra B vitamins to bread. Currently, folic acid is added as a discretion to selected high-premium breakfast cereals in Australia in one attempt to reduce the incidence to neural tube defects. The addition of such ingredients to bread remains an unrealised, but potentially important aspect of preventive medicine in Australia.

   PASTA
   
Acta Diabetol Lat. 1988 Jul-Sep;25(3):243-6
Effects of guar-pasta on serum lipid levels in obese diabetic and non-diabetic women with normal lipids.
Tognarelli M, Miccoli R, Giampietro O, Benzi L, Ciccarone A, Giovannitti G, Bertolotto A, Penno G, Navalesi R.
Cattedra di Malattie del Ricambio, Universita di Pisa, Italy.

Alternative medications for hyperlipidemia management have been continuously searched for above all because currently employed drugs appear not to be effective or are poorly tolerated. Fibers, such as guar-gum, seem to be able to reduce cholesterol levels, but their extensive and long-term use is beset by the high incidence of gastrointestinal side-effects. In this study the administration of guar-enriched pasta has proved to reduce fasting and post-prandial cholesterol levels significantly in 15 obese normocholesterolemic women (5 diabetics and 10 non-diabetics). The women reported good palatableness of guar-pasta without any side-effects.

   
   
Ann Nutr Metab. 1984;28(1):1-10
Effects of Guar-enriched pasta in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia.
Gatti E, Catenazzo G, Camisasca E, Torri A, Denegri E, Sirtori CR.

The effect of an alimentary pasta with a 20% (w/w) content of Guar gum was tested in normal volunteers, diabetic and hyperlipidemic patients in different out- and in-patient protocols. Acute experiments (A, B) were carried out in healthy volunteers and in diabetics, by evaluating plasma glucose, triglyceride and insulin changes after a single meal. Plasma glucose and triglyceride rises were almost completely prevented by the pasta in normal volunteers; plasma insulin levels were modified to a lesser extent. In diabetics, the rise of plasma glucose after the meal was significantly delayed. The pasta was also administered for more prolonged periods of time to diabetic and hyperlipidemic patients (experiments C-E). In the first instance, a significant improvement both in the plasma glucose levels, as well as in the daily glucose profile and glycosuria was observed. In hyperlipidemics, a reduction of triglyceride levels was particularly evident; however, in mixed types of hyperlipidemias, a significant hypocholesterolemic effect was also demonstrated. Guar gum pasta may provide a simple dietary addition for the management of common metabolic disorders.

   
   
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;54(1):24-8
Effects of a low-glycaemic index spaghetti meal on glucose tolerance and lipaemia at a subsequent meal in healthy subjects.
Liljeberg H, Bjorck I.
Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Chemical Center, Lund University, Sweden.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of a low glycaemic index (GI) breakfast on glucose tolerance and lipaemia at a subsequent lunch meal. DESIGN: A low GI spaghetti meal and a high-GI white wheat bread (WWB) reference meal were served in the morning after an overnight fast in random order. Four hours after the breakfast, the subjects were given a second meal-a standardized high-GI lunch-and the blood glucose, insulin and lipid responses were measured after the lunch meal. SETTING: The study was performed at the Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden. SUBJECTS: Ten healthy volunteers, eight women and two men, aged 25-51 y, with normal body mass indices, were recruited. RESULTS: Lowered glucose and insulin responses and reduced serum triglyceride (TG) level were found at the subsequent lunch meal when the low-GI spaghetti meal was given as a breakfast. No differences in total serum cholesterol or HDL cholesterol were seen after lunch, when preceded by the WWB reference breakfast or the spaghetti breakfast, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Improved glucose tolerance and lowered serum TG levels can appear in the course of a single day. As insulin resistance and raised postprandial TG concentration are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the present study adds evidence for a beneficial role of a low-GI diet.

   
   
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1987 Jul-Aug;3(4):221-6
Post-prandial glucose and insulin responses to different types of spaghetti and bread.
d'Emden MC, Marwick TH, Dreghorn J, Howlett VL, Cameron DP.

The glycemic response following ingestion of carbohydrate in various forms is different. The factors involved are not fully elucidated. In this study the glycemic and insulin responses to 50 g of carbohydrate in the form of white bread (WB), semolina bread (SB), white spaghetti (WS) and wholemeal spaghetti (BS) were compared in ten noninsulin-dependent diabetics. The responses were assessed by calculating the area under the curve. WB and SB had significantly higher glycemic responses compared with WS and BS (P less than 0.01). There was no difference in glycemic response between either form of bread, or either type of spaghetti. Similarly WB and SB had greater insulin responses than WS and BS (P less than 0.05). There was no difference in insulin response between WB and SB but BS had a greater response than WS (P less than 0.01) attributed to the higher protein content of BS. Thus, in this study the physical form of the food was a major factor influencing the glycemic response, and other factors such as particle size and fibre content had negligible effects.

   
   
Nahrung. 1996 Oct;40(5):281-7
Hypoglycemic effect and protein nutritive quality of soy and methionine-supplemented whole durum pasta products.
Taha SA, Wasif MM.
Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt.

New low cost, high-protein and high-fiber pasta products processed from whole durum meal (WD) solely, WD supplemented with 7% or 12% defatted soy flour (SF), or 12% SF plus 0.3% methionine were evaluated in comparison with the regular pasta made of pure durum semolina (DS). Their protein nutritive quality was biologically evaluated by rat growth studies using diets containing 9% protein, through the parameters: food efficiency ratio (FER), protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein utilization (NPU), digestibility coefficient (DC) and biological value (BV). The original products were administered to diabetic hypercholesterolemic albino rats, (injected with alloxane) to study their effects on the levels of blood glucose and plasma lipid fractions. The results indicate that diets based on pasta made of WD supplemented with SE or SF plus methionine had superior protein quality and succeeded in supporting normal growth of rats in contrast to the diets based on pasta made of unsupplemented WD or DS. These assays demonstrated that the values of FER, PER, NPU and BV of WD-pasta increased with increasing SF supplementation. However, high-fiber pasta made of unrefined WD solely or with SF had lower DC values compared to that of the regular DS-pasta. DC values decreased as the added SF increased. Adding methionine evidently affected FER, PER, BV and NPU values. Administration of high-protein and high-fiber pasta samples made of WD solely, supplemented with SF or SF plus methionine significantly reduced the elevated blood glucose as well as plasma cholesterol and plasma lipid fractions in hypercholesterolemic diabetic rats. Overall, considering nutritional evaluation, protein cost as well as hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effects the pasta composed of 12% SF-WD and supplemented with 0.3% methionine represented the best high-fiber; high-protein and high-quality product.

   
   
Diabete Metab. 1990 Jan-Feb;16(1):37-41
Comparative effects of couscous and pasta on glycemia in normal subjects and type I diabetics.
Jamel N, Hajri S, Jenkins DJ, Bousnina S, Naggati K, Jedidi H, Boukhris R, Bennaceur B.
Hopital d'Enfants de Tunis.

8 healthy subjects have eaten in the morning, after an overnight fast, in two separated occasions and in a randomised order 50 gr of CHO as pasta or couscous. Blood glucose after pasta ingestion was lower at 30 mn (p less than 0.05) at 45 mn (p less than 0.01) and at 60 mn (p less than 0.05). Area under the curve after pasta was significantly reduced (p less than 0.01). In a second time 6 IDDM patients have eaten in a randomised order a meal made of pasta with tomato sauce (P = 11%, F = 30%, G = 59%) or couscous with vegetables and sauce (P = 10%, F = 37%, G = 53%). Blood glucose after the pasta was lower than couscous at 90 mn (p less than 0.05) the area under the curve after the pasta ingestion was reduced of 38% but did'nt reach significance. In conclusion couscous has a higher glycemic effect than pasta although it has a similar composition. This phenomenon is still observed when the cereal products are mixed with other foods and ingested by IDDM patients.

   
   
J Am Coll Nutr. 1982;1(4):345-55
Can protein-fortified pasta serve as a meat substitute?
Bingham CJ, Tsay R, Babayan VK, Blackburn GL.

A seventeen-day metabolic balance study was conducted with 13 healthy adult subjects to test the protein utilization of a meat-based diet and a protein-fortified pasta diet in an isonitrogenous, isocaloric inpatient study (averaging 112 gm of protein, and 2,500 cal). Intakes of calories, protein, fat, and carbohydrates, as well as ratios of meat protein or protein-fortified pasta protein (PEP), were controlled throughout the diets. The study was comprised of three experimental periods: a seven-day meat-protein control period, representing the typical american diet (TAD), averaging 18% protein, 40% fat, and 42% carbohydrate, a seven-day protein-enriched pasta control period (PEP), averaging 18% protein, 29% fat, and 53% carbohydrates, and a three-day PEP period composed of varied recipes, averaging 18% protein, 29% fat, and 53% carbohydrates. The subjects who consumed both the TAD and PEP diets achieved nitrogen balance (2.5 gN +/- 0.7 on the TAD, 2 gN +/- 0 on PEP with the PEP diet resulting in a decrease in plasma cholesterol (32 mg/dl, P less than .005), and a decrease in systolic (5.25 mm/Hg P less than .025) and diastolic blood pressure (5 mm/Hg, P less than .05), which was associated with an increase in urinary sodium excretion (19 +/- 17 mEq/day, P less than .025). In this study, it was determined that protein-fortified pasta may serve as a meat alternative. The PEP diet, which includes a beneficial change in fat/carbohydrate ratio, can alter lipid profiles, blood pressure, and sodium excretion, thus leading to improved health status and a decrease in cardiac risk factors.

   
   
Ann Nutr Metab. 1989;33(1):22-30
Effects of durum wheat dietary selenium on glutathione peroxidase activity and Se content in long-term-fed rats.
Ciappellano S, Testolin G, Porrini M.
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiologiche, Universita di Milano, Italia.

A 120-day assay was made of Se concentration and glutathione peroxidase Se-dependent (GSHpx) activity in plasma, erythrocytes and liver of female Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a Torula diet (low Se content) or a durum wheat diet providing 28-405 micrograms of Se/kg diet. For all groups there was a strong increase for the first 20 days in plasma and liver Se; for the remaining period the increase was lower; erythrocyte Se increased, as before, in the first 60 days for groups fed 28-200 micrograms/kg diet, after this period it decreased in the groups fed high-Se diet. Plasma GSHpx activity was extremely sensitive to dietary Se levels and increased for up to 40 days of repletion, after which the trend was to plateau; liver and erythrocyte GSHpx activity increased continuously for up to 60 days of supplementation, it then remained constant. The correlation between Se in plasma, liver and erythrocytes and its GSHpx activity was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). These results suggested that in long-term-fed rats, a diet with levels of 100-400 micrograms/kg was sufficient to satisfy the rat's needs; there was no evidence of toxicity and, moreover, in all tissues, an amount of Se, probably bound to proteins with unknown functions, was present.

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FASTING / LOW CALORIE PROGRAMS
on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
     
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
     
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
 
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
        Obesity
Diabetes
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Allergies
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
Infertility
Presbyacusis
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Radio-sensitivity
Apoptosis
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science
     

Vegetables
Fruits
Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Fish
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Legumes
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Mushrooms
Nuts and seeds
Alcohol
Coffee
Water
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Selenium
Flavonoids, carotenes
DHEA
Vitamin B
Carnitin
SAM
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
HGH
Gerovital
Melatonin
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Arthritis
Cancer
Depression
Diabetes
Hyperlipidemia
Hypertension
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Menopause
Muscle weakness
Osteoporosis
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
 
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Arthritis
Cancer
Depression
Diabetes
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Hyperlipidemia
Hypertension
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Osteoporosis
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
        Blood
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Brain
Heart & heart devices
Kidney
Liver
Lung
Pancreas
Spleen
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Stretching
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
 
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
     
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years


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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview
         
       

       
     
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