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Caffeine, postmenopausal estrogen, and risk of Parkinson's disease.
Effects of caffeine on human health.
Effects of coffee and caffeine on fertility, reproduction, lactation, and development. Review of human and animal data.
Caffeine: an update.
Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and breast cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish women.
Effects of caffeine on bone and the calcium economy.
Caffeine and coffee: effects on health and cardiovascular disease.
Caffeine intake and low birth weight: a population-based case-control study.
Selected health and behavioral effects related to the use of caffeine.
Regular caffeine consumption: a balance of adverse and beneficial effects for mood and psychomotor performance.
Caffeine affects cardiovascular and neuroendocrine activation at work and home.
Effect of coffee consumption on intraocular pressure.
Coffee intake and risk of hypertension: the Johns Hopkins precursors study.
Coffee, caffeine and blood pressure: a critical review.
The effect of caffeine on ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive patients.
A prospective study of coffee drinking and suicide in women.
Coffee consumption and risk of ischaemic heart disease - a settled issue?
Coffee intake and coronary heart disease.
Coffee consumption and cause-specific mortality. Association with age at death and compression of mortality.
Cardiovascular effects of coffee consumption in the aged: the CASTEL epidemiologic study.
Mortality patterns among hypertensives by reported level of caffeine consumption.
Coffee consumption and blood pressure: an Italian study.
Coffee consumption and the incidence of coronary heart disease.
Coffee and health.
Coffee consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease and death.
Coffee and tea consumption in the Scottish Heart Health Study follow up: conflicting relations with coronary risk factors, coronary disease, and all cause mortality.
Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease in women. A ten-year follow-up.

Coffee contains a complex mixture of chemical compounds. Some components, particularly those related to the aroma, are produced during roasting of the green beans. The substances which during "brewing" dissolve in water to form the beverage are classified as nonvolatile taste components (including caffeine, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, phenolic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and minerals) and volatile aroma components including organic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters, amines, and mercaptans.

The major physiologically active substance in coffee is the alkaloid caffeine (C_8 H_10 O_2 N_4·H_2 O), also called guaranine or methyltheobromine, which acts as a mild stimulant. Caffeine is a naturally occurring substance found in the leaves, seeds or fruits of more than 60 plants, including coffee and cocoa beans, cola nuts and tea leaves. These are used to make beverages such as coffee, tea and cola drinks, and foods such as chocolate. Caffeine is also contained in many over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications. In the United States, most of the population uses caffeine in some form.

A cup of coffee, depending on the strength, may contain some 20-100mg of caffeine. Some types of coffee may also contain significant amounts of the B-vitamin niacin, although this nutrient is of course readily available from other foods as well. Caffeine-containing tablets or medications should not be taken as well as cups of coffee or tea, since this would increase the true dosage. The effects of caffeine vary from person to person; some individuals can drink several cups of coffee in an hour and notice no effects, while others may feel a strong effect after just one serving. Caffeine is prohibited for competition athletes.
People who wish to avoid or minimise caffeine intake (see below) often use decaffeinated coffee, or coffee substitutes. One method of decaffeination is by treating the green beans (before roasting) with chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents; other methods are also used. Important coffee substitutes are chicory, and roasted cereals such as barley; although these are commonly used not as total substitutes but as "extenders". Under U.S. law, the addition of chicory or any other substance must be clearly stated on the label.

Short-term effects

Caffeine is a drug that has been widely used for centuries. Its main
effect is that it is a mild stimulant of the central nervous system (CNS), helping to reduce feelings of drowsiness and fatigue. However, regular use may lead to "habituation"; that is, no net benefit from use but, rather, a negative effect if the drug is not taken.

Besides the above-mentioned CNS stimulant effect, caffeine also temporarily increases heartbeat, increases the blood pressure, and stimulates the action of the lungs; increases basal metabolic rate (BMR), and promotes urine production; and it relaxes smooth muscles, notably the bronchial muscle. Caffeine is used in treating migraine, either alone or in combination. It enhances the action of the ergot alkaloids used for the treatment of this problem, and also increases the potency of analgesics such as aspirin. It can somewhat relieve asthma attacks by dilating the bronchial airways.

Too much caffeine can produce restlessness, nausea, headache, tense muscles, sleep disturbances, and cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats). Because caffeine increases the production of stomach acid it may worsen ulcer symptoms or cause acid reflux ("heartburn"). Evening use of caffeine may disrupt sleep and cause insomnia.

Caffeine should be used with caution by people with heart disease and high blood pressure (hypertension), and by those suffering from the eye disease glaucoma. Caffeine medications should generally not be used in children. Many children are already consuming significant amounts of caffeine in drinks and food. In this connection, a nutritional concern is that children may choose fizzy drinks in preference to milk, thus getting "empty" calories at the expense of valuable nutrients.

Long-term effects

As already mentioned, some potentially harmful effects of coffee are recognized, particularly for people who should take few or no stimulants. Beyond this however, scientific studies of the effects of caffeine have in general failed to prove negative effects, although some have produced contradictory conclusions. An individual study may produce interesting results which may suggest fruitful directions for further research, but usually it is only when several independent studies confirm one another, and any contradictory results can be accounted for, that one can have reasonable confidence in the safety of a drug -- particularly an " optional" one like coffee.

Although caffeine does not fall into the class of "addictive" drugs, it may be habit-forming. Some people may experience headache, fatigue, irritability and nervousness when their daily intake of caffeine is quickly and substantially altered.

Such "withdrawal effects" may be responsible for confusing results in some studies. There are many complicating factors in long-term studies. One is the familiar "convergence of risk-factors" (e.g. that coffee-drinkers may be more likely to be smokers). Another is that many of the study subjects may deliberately change (or have previously changed) their consumption habits or behaviour, e.g. in response to discovering that they suffer from hypertension. There may also be significant differences in methods of coffee preparation between study populations, or over long periods of time.

Moderate caffeine consumption during pregnancy is generally considered safe. A study has not found any effect on low birth-weight or incidence of premature births. However, although it has been suggested that caffeine may stimulate milk production, cautious mothers may prefer to avoid such beverages during pregnancy or while breastfeeding.

Furthermore, a large study has not shown any connection of coffee or tea consumption with breast-cancer incidence. Osteoporosis is another condition which particularly affects women. Previous studies have suggested caffeine consumption as a risk-factor, but a recent analysis concludes that such an effect is probably not significant except in conditions of calcium-deficiency, which can be easily corrected.

There is even some actual positive news. The effect of caffeine on the risk of developing Parkinson's disease, which usually affects older people, has been found to be favourable for men. For women, previous results have been confusing; but a recent study suggests that a crucial factor may be the effect of hormone levels. Often caffeine may have a favourable effect against developing this disease; but when combined with hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it may have a negative one.

One study has found (for women) a strong inverse association between coffee intake and risk of suicide. However, even if confirmed, to determine whether this might be actual cause and effect is, as usual, a much more challenging problem.

Caffeine, postmenopausal estrogen, and risk of Parkinson's disease.
Sabate J.
Departments of Nutrition (Drs. Ascherio and Chen), Epidemiology (Drs. Ascherio, Zhang, and Colditz), and Environmental Health (Dr. Speizer), Harvard School of Public Health.
Neurology 2003 Mar 11;60(5):790-5 Related Articles, Links

BACKGROUND: Men who regularly consume caffeinated drinks have a lower risk of PD than do nondrinkers, but this relation has not been found in women. Because this sex difference could be due to hormonal effects, the authors examined prospectively the risk of PD according to use of postmenopausal hormones and caffeine intake among participants in the Nurses' Health Study. METHODS: The study population comprised 77,713 women free of PD, stroke, or cancer at baseline, who were postmenopausal at baseline or reached menopause before the end of the study. During 18 years of follow-up the authors documented 154 cases of PD. RESULTS: Overall, the risk of PD was similar in women using hormones and women who never used hormones (relative risk 1.02, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.52). Use of hormones, however, was associated with a reduced risk of PD among women with low caffeine consumption (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.17), and with increased risk among women with high caffeine consumption (RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.75 to 7.86; p for interaction = 0.01). Among hormone users, women consuming six or more cups of coffee per day had a fourfold higher risk of PD (RR 3.92, 95% CI 1.49 to 10.34; p = 0.006) than did women who never drink coffee. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that caffeine reduces the risk of PD among women who do not use postmenopausal hormones, but increases risk among hormone users. Clinical trials of caffeine or estrogens in women should avoid the combined use of these agents.

Effects of caffeine on human health.
Nawrot P, Jordan S, Eastwood J, Rotstein J, Hugenholtz A, Feeley M.
Toxicological Evaluation Section, Chemical Health Hazard Assessment Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Food Directorate, Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture, PL 2204D1, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0L2.
Food Addit Contam 2003 Jan;20(1):1-30

Caffeine is probably the most frequently ingested pharmacologically active substance in the world. It is found in common beverages (coffee, tea, soft drinks), in products containing cocoa or chocolate, and in medications. Because of its wide consumption at different levels by most segments of the population, the public and the scientific community have expressed interest in the potential for caffeine to produce adverse effects on human health. The possibility that caffeine ingestion adversely affects human health was investigated based on reviews of (primarily) published human studies obtained through a comprehensive literature search. Based on the data reviewed, it is concluded that for the healthy adult population, moderate daily caffeine intake at a dose level up to 400 mg day(-1) (equivalent to 6 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) in a 65-kg person) is not associated with adverse effects such as general toxicity, cardiovascular effects, effects on bone status and calcium balance (with consumption of adequate calcium), changes in adult behaviour, increased incidence of cancer and effects on male fertility. The data also show that reproductive-aged women and children are 'at risk' subgroups who may require specific advice on moderating their caffeine intake. Based on available evidence, it is suggested that reproductive-aged women should consume

Effects of coffee and caffeine on fertility, reproduction, lactation, and development. Review of human and animal data.
Nehlig A, Debry G.
INSERM U 272, Universite de Nancy I.
J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 1994;23(3):241-56

In the present review, we have examined the effects of coffee ingestion on fertility, reproduction, lactation and development. The potential effects of coffee consumption on fertility, spontaneous abortion and prematurity are not clearly established but appear to be quite limited. In rodents, caffeine can induce malformations but this effect appears in general at doses never encountered in humans. Indeed, as soon as the quantity of caffeine is divided over the day, as is the case for human consumption, the teratogenic effect of caffeine disappears in rodents. Coffee ingested during gestation induces a dose-dependent decrease in birth weight, but usually only when ingested amounts are high (i.e. more than 7 cups/day), whereas coffee has no effect at moderate doses. Caffeine consumption during gestation affects hematologic parameters of the new-born infant or rat. In animals, caffeine induces long-term consequences on sleep, locomotion, learning abilities, emotivity and anxiety, whereas, in children, the effects of early exposure to coffee and caffeine on behavior are not clearly established. The quantities of caffeine found in maternal milk vary with authors, but it appears clearly that caffeine does not change maternal milk composition and has a tendency to stimule milk production. In conclusion to this review, it appears that maternal coffee or caffeine consumption during gestation and/or lactation does not seem to have measurable consequences on the fetus of the newborn, as long as ingested quantities remain moderate. Therefore, pregnant mothers should be advised to limit their coffee and caffeine intake to 300 mg caffeine/day (i.e. 2-3 cups of coffee or 2.5-3 l of coke) especially because of the increase of caffeine half-life during the third trimester of pregnancy and in the neonate.

Caffeine: an update.
Oser BL, Ford RA.
Drug Chem Toxicol 1981;4(4):311-29

While the total annual volume of caffeine has increased over the years, the actual per capita daily intake has not. This is based on the fact that the quantity of caffeine in a soft drink is about the same or, in the case of diet drinks, less than in 1961 when the original GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) determinations were made. Since that time, there have been numerous studies on the effect of caffeine on animals and humans. The Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) in 1978 reviewed all the data available at that time and concluded that there is "no evidence in the available information on caffeine [that] demonstrates a hazard to the public when it is used in cola-type beverages at levels that are now current and in the manner now practiced...", although they did suggest further study was necessary. The Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (FEMA) Expert Panel has now reviewed not only the same data s the FASEB (SCOGS) Committee, but several more recent studies. On the basis of this review, the Panel reaffirms the GRAS status of caffeine under conditions of its current use as an international ingredient in nonalcoholic beverages.

Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and breast cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish women.
Michels KB, Holmberg L, Bergkvist L, Wolk A.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Epidemiology Center, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Ann Epidemiol 2002 Jan;12(1):21-6

PURPOSE: Coffee, caffeinated tea, and caffeine have been suggested to play a role in breast carcinogenesis or in the promotion or inhibition of tumor growth. Prior epidemiologic evidence has not supported an overall association between consumption of caffeinated beverages and risk of breast cancer, but consumption in some studies was low. METHODS: We studied this relation in the Swedish Mammography Screening Cohort, a large population-based prospective cohort study in Sweden comprising 59,036 women aged 40-76 years. Sweden has the highest coffee consumption per capita in the world. RESULTS: During 508,267 person-years of follow-up, 1271 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed. Women who reported drinking 4 or more cups of coffee per day had a covariate-adjusted hazard ratio of breast cancer of 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-1.28] compared to women who reported drinking 1 cup a week or less. The corresponding hazard ratio for tea consumption was 1.13 (95% CI 0.91-1.40). Similarly, women in the highest quintile of self-reported caffeine intake had a hazard ratio of beast cancer of 1.04 (95% CI 0.87-1.24) compared to women in the lowest quintile. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of Swedish women, consumption of coffee, tea, and caffeine was not associated with breast cancer incidence.

Effects of caffeine on bone and the calcium economy.
Heaney RP.
Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, Nebraska 68178, USA.
Food Chem Toxicol 2002 Sep;40(9):1263-70

Caffeine-containing beverage consumption has been reported to be associated with reduced bone mass and increased fracture risk in some, but not most, observational studies. Human physiological studies and controlled balance studies show a clear but only a very small depressant effect of caffeine itself on intestinal calcium absorption, and no effect on total 24-h urinary calcium excretion. The epidemiologic studies showing a negative effect may be explained in part by an inverse relationship between consumption of milk and caffeine-containing beverages. Low calcium intake is clearly linked to skeletal fragility, and it is likely that a high caffeine intake is often a marker for a low calcium intake. The negative effect of caffeine on calcium absorption is small enough to be fully offset by as little as 1-2 tablespoons of milk. All of the observations implicating caffeine-containing beverages as a risk factor for osteoporosis have been made in populations consuming substantially less than optimal calcium intakes. There is no evidence that caffeine has any harmful effect on bone status or on the calcium economy in individuals who ingest the currently recommended daily allowances of calcium.
Caffeine and coffee: effects on health and cardiovascular disease.
Chou TM, Benowitz NL.
Cardiology Division, Moffitt-Long Hospitals, University of California, San Francisco 94143-1220.
Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 1994 Oct;109(2):173-89

Caffeine is a methylxanthine whose primary biological effect is the competitive antagonism of the adenosine receptor. Its presence in coffee, tea, soda beverages, chocolate and many prescription and over-the-counter drugs makes it a commonly consumed stimulant. Coffee and/or caffeine consumption has been linked to many human diseases in epidemiologic studies. Causal relationships have been difficult to substantiate. Initial investigations, showing an association between coffee and coronary heart disease, suffer from confounding variables and have been difficult to replicate. Recent studies, showing a significant effect over long follow-up periods and with high coffee intake, have again raised the question of a role for coffee and/or caffeine consumption in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic heart disease. Contrary to common belief, the published literature provides little evidence that coffee and/or caffeine in typical dosages increases the risk of infarction, sudden death or arrhythmia.

Caffeine intake and low birth weight: a population-based case-control study.
Santos IS, Victora CG, Huttly S, Carvalhal JB.
Pos-Graduacao em Epidemiologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Brazil.
Am J Epidemiol 1998 Apr 1;147(7):620-7

The authors conducted a matched case-control study to investigate the effects of caffeine intake during pregnancy on birth weight. From January to November 1992, in the first 24 hours after delivery, 1,205 mothers (401 cases and 804 controls) were interviewed and their newborns were examined to assess birth weight and gestational age by means of the method of Capurro et al. (J Pediatr 1978;93:120-2). The cases were children with birth weight < 2,500 g and gestational age > or = 28 weeks. Cases and controls were matched for time of birth and hospital of delivery and were recruited from the four maternity hospitals in Pelotas, southern Brazil. Daily maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy for each trimester was estimated. To assess caffeine intake, 10% of the mothers were reinterviewed at their households and samples of reported information on drip coffee and mate (a caffeine-containing drink widely used in South America) were collected and sent to the laboratory for caffeine determination through liquid chromatography. When instant coffee was reported, the weight of powder was measured using a portable scale, and caffeine intake was estimated from a reference table. Caffeine intake from tea, chocolate, soft drinks, and medicines was estimated from a reference table. Analyses were performed by conditional logistic regression. Crude analyses showed no effect of caffeine on low birth weight, preterm births or intrauterine growth retardation. The results did not change after allowing for confounders.

Selected health and behavioral effects related to the use of caffeine.
Lamarine RJ.
Department of Health and Community Services, California State University, Chico 95929-0505.
J Community Health 1994 Dec;19(6):449-66

This paper reviews the research literature concerning health and selected behavioral effects of caffeine. Epidemiological and laboratory findings are reviewed to determine the health risks associated with both acute and chronic caffeine exposure. Common sources of caffeine, its properties, and physiological effects are considered. The relationships between caffeine and various health conditions are examined including caffeine's association with heart disease, cancer, and benign breast disease. Caffeine's possible contribution to enhanced exercise performance is discussed along with a brief overview of caffeine's effects on mental and emotional health. Over 100 references cited in this review were part of a more extensive literature base obtained from several on-line services including MEDLINE and LEXIS/NEXIS medical data bases. Other sources of relevant literature included manual searches of research journals and the use of selected references from appropriate articles. The relationship between caffeine consumption and various illnesses such as cardiovascular disease and cancer remains equivocal. Prudence might dictate that pregnant women and chronically ill individuals exercise restraint in their use of caffeine, although research suggests relatively low or nonexistent levels of risk associated with moderate caffeine consumption.

Regular caffeine consumption: a balance of adverse and beneficial effects for mood and psychomotor performance.
Rogers PJ, Dernoncourt C.
Consumer Sciences Department, Institute of Food Research, Reading Laboratory, UK.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1998 Apr;59(4):1039-45

It has often been pointed out that caffeine is the most widely "used" psychoactive substance in the world, and accordingly, there is a very large amount of research available on the effects of caffeine on body and mind. In particular, a psychostimulant action of caffeine is generally accepted as well established; for example, caffeine has been found to quicken reaction time and enhance vigilance performance, and to increase self-rated alertness and improve mood. There is, however, a real difficulty in determining the net effects of caffeine. In a typical experiment the subjects have a history of regular caffeine consumption, and they are tested on caffeine and a placebo after a period of caffeine deprivation (often overnight). The problem with relying solely on this approach is that it leaves open the question as to whether the results obtained are due to beneficial effects of caffeine or to deleterious effects of caffeine deprivation. The present article briefly reviews this evidence on the psychostimulant effects of caffeine, and presents some new data testing the hypothesis that caffeine may enhance cognitive performance to a greater extent in older adults than in young adults. No age-related differences in the effects of caffeine on psychomotor performance were found. We conclude that overall there is little unequivocal evidence to show that regular caffeine use is likely to substantially benefit mood or performance. Indeed, one of the significant factors motivating caffeine consumption appears to be "withdrawal relief."

Caffeine affects cardiovascular and neuroendocrine activation at work and home.
Lane JD, Pieper CF, Phillips-Bute BG, Bryant JE, Kuhn CM.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
Psychosom Med 2002 Jul-Aug;64(4):595-603

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of moderate doses of caffeine on ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate, urinary excretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol, and subjective measures of stress during normal activities at work and at home in the evening. METHODS: Healthy, nonsmoking, habitual coffee drinkers (N = 47) participated in 3 days of ambulatory study. After a day of ad lib caffeine consumption, caffeine (500 mg) and placebo were administered double-blind in counter-balanced order on separate workdays. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate were monitored from the start of the workday until bedtime. Urinary excretion of catecholamines and cortisol was assessed during the workday and evening. RESULTS: Caffeine administration significantly raised average ambulatory blood pressure during the workday and evening by 4/3 mm Hg and reduced average heart rate by 2 bpm. Caffeine also increased by 32% the levels of free epinephrine excreted during the workday and the evening. In addition, caffeine amplified the increases in blood pressure and heart rate associated with higher levels of self-reported stress during the activities of the day. Effects were undiminished through the evening until bedtime. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine has significant hemodynamic and humoral effects in habitual coffee drinkers that persist for many hours during the activities of everyday life. Furthermore, caffeine may exaggerate sympathetic adrenal-medullary responses to the stressful events of normal daily life. Repeated daily blood pressure elevations and increases in stress reactivity caused by caffeine consumption could contribute to an increased risk of coronary heart disease in the adult population.

Effect of coffee consumption on intraocular pressure.
Avisar R, Avisar E, Weinberger D.
Department of Ophthalmology and External Eye Disease Clinic, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tiqva, Israel.
Ann Pharmacother 2002 Jun;36(6):992-5

BACKGROUND: Many ophthalmologists instruct patients with glaucoma to avoid coffee, although data supporting this practice are insufficient. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of drinking coffee on intraocular pressure (IOP). METHODS: In this crossover study, the effect of the consumption of regular (180 mg caffeine in 200 mL beverage) and decaffeinated coffee (3.6 mg caffeine in 200 mL beverage) was compared in patients with normotensive glaucoma (n = 6) or ocular hypertension (n = 22). IOP was monitored in both groups at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after coffee ingestion. RESULTS: In patients with normotensive glaucoma who drank regular coffee, the mean +/- SD changes in IOP at 30, 60, and 90 minutes were 0.9 +/- 0.5, 3.6 +/- 1.1, and 2.3 +/- 0.66 mm Hg, respectively; in those who drank decaffeinated coffee, they were 0.75 +/- 0.36, 0.70 +/- 0.4, and 0.4 +/- 0.6 mm Hg, respectively. The corresponding values in patients with ocular hypertension were as follows: after regular coffee, 1.1 +/- 0.7, 3.4 +/- 1.0, and 3.0 +/- 2.7 mm Hg; and after decaffeinated coffee, 0.6 +/- 0.4, 0.9 +/- 0.2, and 0.5 +/- 0.5 mm Hg. The difference in the change in IOP from baseline after ingestion of regular versus decaffeinated coffee was statistically significant in each group at 60 and 90 minutes. Subjects who drank regular coffee demonstrated a greater elevation in IOP; this elevation may be clinically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Intake of caffeinated beverage (>/=180 mg caffeine) may not be recommended for patients with normotensive glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

Coffee intake and risk of hypertension: the Johns Hopkins precursors study.
Klag MJ, Wang NY, Meoni LA, Brancati FL, Cooper LA, Liang KY, Young JH, Ford DE.
The Johns Hopkins Precursors Study, 2024 E Monument St, Suite 2-200, Baltimore, MD 21205-2223, USA.
Arch Intern Med 2002 Mar 25;162(6):657-62

BACKGROUND: Whether the increase in blood pressure with coffee drinking seen in clinical trials persists over time and translates into an increased incidence of hypertension is not known. METHODS: We assessed coffee intake in a cohort of 1017 white male former medical students (mean age, 26 years) in graduating classes from 1948 to 1964 up to 11 times over a median follow-up of 33 years. Blood pressure and incidence of hypertension were determined annually by self-report, demonstrated to be accurate in this cohort. RESULTS: Consumption of 1 cup of coffee a day raised systolic blood pressure by 0.19 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.35) and diastolic pressure by 0.27 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.39) after adjustment for parental incidence of hypertension and time-dependent body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity in analyses using generalized estimating equations. Compared with nondrinkers at baseline, coffee drinkers had a greater incidence of hypertension during follow-up (18.8% vs. 28.3%; P =.03). Relative risk (95% confidence interval) of hypertension associated with drinking 5 or more cups a day was 1.35 (0.87-2.08) for baseline intake and 1.60 (1.06-2.40) for intake over follow-up. After adjustment for the variables listed above, however, these associations were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Over many years of follow-up, coffee drinking is associated with small increases in blood pressure, but appears to play a small role in the development of hypertension.

Coffee, caffeine and blood pressure: a critical review.
Nurminen ML, Niittynen L, Korpela R, Vapaatalo H.
Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1999 Nov;53(11):831-9

OBJECTIVE: We review the published data relating to intake of coffee and caffeine on blood pressure in man. We also refer to studies on the possible mechanisms of actions of these effects of caffeine. DESIGN: The MEDLINE and Current Contents databases were searched from 1966 to April 1999 using the text words 'coffee or caffeine' and 'blood pressure or hypertension'. Controlled clinical and epidemiologic studies on the blood pressure effects of coffee or caffeine are reviewed. We also refer to studies on the possible mechanisms of action of these effects of caffeine. RESULTS: Acute intake of coffee and caffeine increases blood pressure. Caffeine is probably the main active component in coffee. The pressor response is strongest in hypertensive subjects. Some studies with repeated administration of caffeine showed a persistent pressor effect, whereas in others chronic caffeine ingestion did not increase blood pressure. Epidemiologic studies have produced contradictory findings regarding the association between blood pressure and coffee consumption. During regular use tolerance to the cardiovascular responses develops in some people, and therefore no systematic elevation of blood pressure in long-term and in population studies can be shown. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that regular coffee may be harmful to some hypertension-prone subjects. The hemodynamic effects of chronic coffee and caffeine consumption have not been sufficiently studied. The possible mechanisms of the cardiovascular effects of caffeine include the blocking of adenosine receptors and the inhibition of phosphodiesterases.

The effect of caffeine on ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive patients.
Rachima-Maoz C, Peleg E, Rosenthal T.
Chorley Hypertension Institute, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.
Am J Hypertens 1998 Dec;11(12):1426-32

Because the potential impact of habitual caffeine intake on blood pressure is a controversial issue, a study was carried out to explore the relationship between caffeine and various humoral factors that could account for a coffee-induced rise in blood pressure. Twenty-three hypertensive patients who refrained from caffeine for 2 to 3 weeks were given 250 mg oral caffeine powder dissolved in water. Blood pressure was recorded every 15 min by blood pressure monitor. Caffeine blood level, renin and endothelin were measured before and 1, 2, 3, and 6 h after caffeine intake. Urinary electrolytes and catecholamines were measured under caffeine influence (period I), and for the next 6 h (period II). A significant increase in systolic (P = .017) and diastolic blood pressure (P = .023) occurred in 13 subjects who were 58 +/- 10.4 years old. Nonresponders were younger (44.5 +/- 15.8 years). A statistically significant decrease in heart rate was seen during the first hour after caffeine intake in both responders (P = .008) and nonresponders (P = .004). Marked diuresis and natriuresis were observed during period I in both groups. Renin and endothelin levels were unchanged. Although chronic studies point to development of tolerance to long-term caffeine ingestion, acute studies like the one described are essential to obtain data on the immediate effects that can be of practical importance, especially in the elderly.

A prospective study of coffee drinking and suicide in women.
Kawachi I, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Speizer FE.
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA.
Arch Intern Med 1996 Mar 11;156(5):521-5

BACKGROUND: Among the many reported central nervous system effects of long-term caffeine use is improvement in mood. OBJECTIVE: To examine prospectively the relationship of coffee and caffeine intake to risk of death from suicide. METHODS: We conducted a 10-year follow-up study (1980 to 1990) in an ongoing cohort of 86 626 US female registered nurses aged 34 to 59 years in 1980, who were free of diagnosed coronary heart disease, stroke, or cancer. Information on coffee and caffeine intake was collected by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1980. Deaths from suicide were determined by physician review of death certificates. RESULTS: Fifty-six cases of suicide occurred during 832 704 person-years of observation. Compared with non-drinkers of coffee, the age-adjusted relative risk of suicide in women who consumed two to three cups per day was 0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI, 0.17 to 0.68) and 0.42 (95% CI, 0.21 to 0.86) in women who consumed four or more cups per day (P for linear trend=.002). These findings remained essentially unchanged after adjusting for a broad range of potential confounding factors, including smoking habit, alcohol intake, medication use (diazepam and phenothiazine), history of comorbid disease (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or diabetes), marital status, and self-reported stress. A strong inverse relationship was similarly found for caffeine intake from all sources and risk of suicide. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest a strong inverse association between coffee intake and risk of suicide. Whether regular intake of coffee or caffeine has clinically significant effects on the maintenance of affect or the prevention of depression merits further investigation in clinical trials and population-based prospective studies.

Coffee consumption and risk of ischaemic heart disease--a settled issue?
Gyntelberg F, Hein HO, Suadicani P, Sorensen H.
Epidemiological Research Unit, Copenhagen Male Study, Denmark.
J Intern Med 1995 Jan;237(1):55-61

OBJECTIVE. Based on a meta-analysis, it was recently stated that there is no association between coffee consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease. Why then, have studies on the issue shown quite variable results? DESIGN SETTING AND SUBJECTS. A prospective study was performed in the Copenhagen Male Study on 2975 men (53-74 years) without cardiovascular disease at baseline in 1985/1986. They were classified according to self-reported consumption of filter coffee. Some 147 men (5%) were coffee abstainers. Potential confounders were alcohol use, physical activity, smoking, serum cotinine, serum lipids, serum selenium, body mass index, blood pressure, Lewis blood group, hypertension, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and social class. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. The incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) 1985/86-1991. RESULTS. Some 184 men had a first IHD event. There was no significant difference between those consuming 1-4, 5-8 or > or = 9 cups per day after controlling for confounders (P-value of trend test: 0.14). The crude incidence rates were 6.8, 6.7 and 4.6%, respectively; the adjusted rates were 6.8, 6.7 and 4.0%, respectively. Coffee consumption was significantly (P < 0.05) inversely correlated with serum selenium concentration (never previously described) and, positively or negatively, with a number of other potential risk factors: smoking, alcohol use, serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, blood pressure, social class, body mass index, and serum selenium. In nonsmokers and smokers of only a small amount of tobacco, coffee consumption was associated with a lower risk of IHD (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION. We conclude that the association between coffee consumption and risk of IHD is conditioned by known risk factors correlated with use of coffee, which may partly explain the inconsistencies in the results of previous studies.

Coffee intake and coronary heart disease.
Klag MJ, Mead LA, LaCroix AZ, Wang NY, Coresh J, Liang KY, Pearson TA, Levine DM.
Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore.
Ann Epidemiol 1994 Nov;4(6):425-33

We examined the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) associated with coffee intake in 1040 male medical students followed for 28 to 44 years. During the follow-up, CHD developed in 111 men. The relative risks (95% confidence interval) associated with drinking 5 cups of coffee/d were 2.94 (1.27, 6.81) for baseline, 5.52 (1.31, 23.18) for average, and 1.95 (0.86, 4.40) for most recent intake after adjustment for baseline age, serum cholesterol levels, calendar time, and the time-dependent covariates number of cigarettes, body mass index, and incident hypertension and diabetes. Risks were elevated in both smokers and nonsmokers and were stronger for myocardial infarction. Most of the excess risk was associated with coffee drinking prior to 1975. The diagnosis of hypertension was associated with a subsequent reduction in coffee intake. Negative results in some studies may be due to the assessment of coffee intake later in life or to differences in methods of coffee preparation between study populations or over calendar time.

Coffee consumption and cause-specific mortality. Association with age at death and compression of mortality.
Lindsted KD, Kuzma JW, Anderson JL.
Loma Linda University, CA 92354.
J Clin Epidemiol 1992 Jul;45(7):733-42

The relationship between reported coffee consumption and specific causes of death was examined in 9484 males enrolled in the Adventist Mortality Study in 1960 and followed through 1985. Coffee consumption was divided into three levels: less than 1 cup per day, 1-2 cups per day, and greater than or equal to 3 cups per day. Approximately one third of the subjects did not drink coffee. Cause-specific mortality rates were compared using survival analysis including Cox's proportional hazard model, and controlling for potential confounders such as body mass index, heart disease and hypertension at baseline, race, physical activity, marital status, educational level, smoking history, and dietary pattern. Inclusion of interaction terms between coffee consumption and attained age as time-dependent covariates allowed the hazard ratio to vary with age. Univariate analyses showed a statistically significant association (p less than 0.05) for coffee consumption and mortality for most endpoints. Multivariate analyses showed a small but statistically significant association between coffee consumption and mortality from ischemic heart disease, other cardiovascular diseases, all cardiovascular diseases, and all causes of death. For the major causes of death, the hazard ratios decreased from about 2.5 at 30 years of age to 1.0 around 95 years of age. These results indicate that abstinence from coffee leads to compression of mortality rather than an increase in lifespan.

Cardiovascular effects of coffee consumption in the aged: the CASTEL epidemiologic study.
Casiglia E, Mormino P, Spolaore P, Maschio O, Cernetti C, Costa F, Colangeli G, Ambrosio GB.
Clinica Medica I, Universita degli Studi, Padova.
Cardiologia 1990 Oct;35(10):827-32

The data obtained from 2240 subjects aged 65 years or more from the general population of Castelfranco Veneto (Italy) included in the CASTEL (CArdiovascular STudy in the ELderly) epidemiological Italian project were analyzed in relation to coffee consumption. Subjects were divided into 3 classes: class 1 (N = 109): non coffee drinkers; class 2 (N = 1554): 1 to 2 cups of coffee per day; class 3 (N = 577): 3 or more cups per day. The results were described by ANOVA, Tukey post hoc test and Pearson correlation coefficient with Bonferroni's conservative correction. In classes 2 and 3 total cholesterol, apolipoprotein B100 and calculated LDL-cholesterol were higher than in class 1. The number of cups of coffee per day directly correlated to both the number of cigarettes per day and the number of drinks per week. Although these data seem to indicate a convergence of risk factors (cholesterol, smoking, alcohol) in coffee drinkers, no increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular events was found in coffee drinkers in comparison with non drinkers. This could be attributed to the fact that prevalence of hypertension and diabetes did not increase with increasing coffee consumption; on the contrary, they were lower in classes 2 and 3 than in class 1.

Mortality patterns among hypertensives by reported level of caffeine consumption.
Martin JB, Annegers JF, Curb JD, Heyden S, Howson C, Lee ES, Lee M.
School of Allied Health Sciences, Program in Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Texas Health Science Center 77225.
Prev Med 1988 May;17(3):310-20

The effect of caffeine consumption on mortality was evaluated in a historical cohort study of 10,064 diagnosed hypertensive individuals participating in the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program from 1973 to 1979. Total caffeine intake level from beverages (coffee and tea) and certain medications, was estimated at the 1-year visit. No evidence was found supporting an association between increased level of caffeine consumption and increased all-cause mortality or cardiovascular disease mortality during the following 4 years. Cigarette smoking was significantly associated with mortality; the association being more pronounced among non- and low-caffeine consumers for all-cause mortality and among non-caffeine consumers for all cardiovascular mortality except cerebrovascular mortality.

Coffee consumption and blood pressure: an Italian study.
Periti M, Salvaggio A, Quaglia G, Di Marzio L.
Clin Sci (Lond) 1987 Apr;72(4):443-7

The relation between habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure was studied in 500 Italian subjects, males and females, aged 18-62 years. After allowing for sex, age and weight, the pressure levels showed a significant decrease with increasing coffee consumption. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were respectively 130.4 +/- 1.8 (SE) mmHg and 81.5 +/- 1.1 mmHg for non-coffee drinkers, 129.4 +/- 1.4 and 82.2 +/- 0.9 mmHg for 1 cup per day, 128.4 +/- 0.8 and 81.4 +/- 0.5 mmHg for 2-3 cups per day, 124.9 +/- 1.1 and 78.8 +/- 0.7 mmHg for 4-6 cups per day, and 124.1 +/- 2.5 and 78.7 +/- 1.6 mmHg for more than 6 cups of coffee daily (analysis of covariance: SBP F = 3.46, 4 df, P less than 0.01; DBP F = 3.46, 4 df, P less than 0.01). Even after correcting pressure levels for habitual alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, we observed a mean reduction in SBP and DBP of 0.80 mmHg and 0.48 mmHg respectively per cup per day.

Coffee consumption and the incidence of coronary heart disease.
LaCroix AZ, Mead LA, Liang KY, Thomas CB, Pearson TA.
N Engl J Med 1986 Oct 16;315(16):977-82

We conducted a prospective investigation of the effect of coffee consumption on coronary heart disease in 1130 male medical students who were followed for 19 to 35 years. Changes in coffee consumption and cigarette smoking during follow-up were examined in relation to the incidence of clinically evident coronary disease in comparisons of three measures of coffee intake--base-line intake, average intake, and most recent intake reported before the manifestation of coronary disease. Clinical evidence of coronary disease included myocardial infarction, angina, and sudden cardiac death. In separate analyses for each measure of coffee intake, the relative risks for men drinking five or more cups of coffee per day, as compared with nondrinkers, were approximately 2.80 for all three measures in the univariate analyses (maximum width of 95 percent confidence intervals, 1.27 to 6.51). After adjustment for age, current smoking, hypertension status, and base-line level of serum cholesterol, the estimated relative risk for men drinking five or more cups of coffee per day (using the most recent coffee intake measure), as compared with those drinking none, was 2.49 (maximum width of 95 percent confidence interval, 1.08 to 5.77). The association between coffee and coronary disease was strongest when the time between the reports of coffee intake and the coronary event was shortest. These findings support an independent, dose-responsive association of coffee consumption with clinically evident coronary heart disease, which is consistent with a twofold to threefold elevation in risk among heavy coffee drinkers.

Coffee and health.
Czok G.
Z Ernahrungswiss 1977 Dec;16(4):248-55

Coffee as a rule develops stimulating effects on the central nervous system, heart and circulation which are mainly caused by caffeine. In certain cases coffee may also have a sedative effect and sometimes even it is useful to fall asleep quickly. Furthermore coffee may be advantageous in the treatment of some functional disorders caused by lacking of dopamine, because coffee is able to increase the dopamine formation in brain. Concerning the effects of coffee in the gastrointestinal-tract and liver-bile system caffeine is only of secondary importance. Hereby certain roasting substances, possibly also chlorogenic acid or caffeic acid should be responsible for the stimulating effects observed in these organs. These stimulating effects could be caused whether directly or indirect e.g. by liberating gastrin or other gastrointestinal hormones. Vitamin niacin, which is formed in greater amounts from trigonelline during the roasting process, may also be important from the nutritional standpoint. Therefore coffee may be prescribed as a true drug in cases of deficiency in vitamin niacin or also in the pellagra disease. By extensive epidemiological studies performed lately it could be demonstrated that there exists no correlation between coffee consumption and certain risk factors as hypertension, heart infarction, diabetes, gout or cancer diseases. Furthermore there was no evidence that coffee or its caffeine content are able to induce genetic alterations or even malformations.

Coffee consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease and death.
Kleemola P, Jousilahti P, Pietinen P, Vartiainen E, Tuomilehto J.
Division of Nutrition, University of Helsinki, PO Box 27, Latokartanonkaari 9, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.
Arch Intern Med 2000 Dec 11-25;160(22):3393-400

OBJECTIVES: To study prospectively the relation of coffee drinking with fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and all-cause mortality and to perform a cross-sectional analysis at baseline on the association between coffee drinking and CHD risk factors, diagnosed diseases, self-reported symptoms, and use of medicines. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 20 179 randomly selected eastern Finnish men and women aged 30 to 59 years who participated in a cross-sectional risk factor survey in 1972, 1977, or 1982. Habitual coffee drinking, health behavior, major known CHD risk factors, and medical history were assessed at the baseline examination. Each subject was followed up for 10 years after the survey using the national hospital discharge and death registers. Multivariate analyses were performed by using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: In men, the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction was not associated with coffee drinking. The age-adjusted association of coffee drinking was J shaped with CHD mortality and U shaped with all-cause mortality. The highest CHD mortality was found among those who did not drink coffee at all (multivariate adjusted). Also, in women, all-cause mortality decreased by increasing coffee drinking. The prevalence of smoking and the mean level of serum cholesterol increased with increasing coffee drinking. Non-coffee drinkers more often reported a history of various diseases and symptoms, and they also more frequently used several drugs compared with coffee drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee drinking does not increase the risk of CHD or death. In men, slightly increased mortality from CHD and all causes in heavy coffee drinkers is largely explained by the effects of smoking and a high serum cholesterol level.

Coffee and tea consumption in the Scottish Heart Health Study follow up: conflicting relations with coronary risk factors, coronary disease, and all cause mortality.
Woodward M, Tunstall-Pedoe H.
Department of Applied Statistics, University of Reading.
J Epidemiol Community Health 1999 Aug;53(8):481-7

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To relate habitual (cups per day) tea and coffee consumption to conventional coronary risk factors and subsequent risk of coronary heart disease and death. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide random population study. PARTICIPANTS: Over 11,000 men and women aged 40-59 who took part in the Scottish Heart Health Study lifestyle and risk factor survey in 1984-87. Participants were followed up to the end of 1993, an average of 7.7 years, for all cause mortality, coronary death, or any major coronary event (death, non-fatal infarction or coronary artery surgery). Cox's proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard in consumers of tea and coffee relative to the zero consumption group, both before and after correction for other factors. MAIN RESULTS: Coffee and tea consumption showed a strong inverse relation. For many conventional risk factors, coffee showed a weak, but beneficial, gradient with increasing consumption, whereas increasing tea consumption showed the reverse. Increasing coffee consumption was associated with beneficial effects for mortality and coronary morbidity, whereas tea showed the opposite. Adjusting for age and social class had some effect in reducing associations. Multiple adjustment for other risk factors removed the associations for tea and most of those for coffee although there was a residual benefit of coffee consumption in avoiding heart disease among men. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological differences shown in this study occurred despite the pharmacological similarities between tea and coffee. Either they differ more than is realised, or they identify contrasting associated lifestyle and health risks, for which this multiple adjustment was inadequate.

Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease in women. A ten-year follow-up.
Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH.
Channing Laboratory, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
JAMA 1996 Feb 14;275(6):458-62

OBJECTIVE--To assess the relationship between coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among women. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study with coffee consumption measured in 1980, 1984, and 1986, and follow-up through 1990. SETTING--Female registered nurses in the United States. PARTICIPANTS--A total of 85,747 US women 34 to 59 years of age in 1980 and without history of CHD, stroke, or cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Ten-year incidence of CHD (defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD). RESULTS--During 10 years of follow-up we documented 712 cases of CHD. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other CHD risk factors, we found no evidence for any positive association between coffee consumption and risk of subsequent CHD. For women drinking six or more cups of caffeine-containing coffee per day in 1980, the relative risk was 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 1.26) compared with women who did not consume this beverage. Similarly, there was no association when the first 4 years of follow-up were excluded, when nonfatal and fatal CHD end points were examined separately, or when we updated coffee consumption in 1984 or 1986 and examined only CHD during the next 2-year interval. Further, there was no association with caffeine intake from all sources combined or with decaffeinated coffee consumption. CONCLUSIONS--These data indicate that coffee as consumed by US women is not an important cause of CHD.

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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