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Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women.
Olive oil instead of butter increases net cholesterol excretion from the small bowel.
Effect of a diet formula with high butter or margarine content on body weight reduction.
Butter, margarine and serum lipoproteins.
Consumption of olive oil, butter, and vegetable oils and coronary heart disease risk factors. The Research Group ATS-RF2 of the Italian National Research Council.
Effects of a high olive oil diet on the clinical behavior and histopathological features of rat DMBA-induced mammary tumors compared with a high corn oil diet.
Impact of diets containing corn oil or olive/sunflower oil mixture on the human plasma and lipoprotein lipid metabolism.
Food uses and health effects of corn oil.
Olive oil as a functional food: epidemiology and nutritional approaches.
Olive oil, seed oils and other added fats in relation to ovarian cancer (Italy).
Olive-oil consumption and health: the possible role of antioxidants.
Coronary disease protective factors: antioxidant effect of olive oil.
Effects of diets containing olive oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil on the hemostatic system.
Antibacterial activity of ozonized sunflower oil (Oleozon).
Rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets enhance platelet in vitro aggregation and thromboxane production in healthy men when compared with milk fat or habitual diets.
The use of sesame oil and other vegetable oils in the inhibition of human colon cancer growth in vitro.
JAMA. 2002 Nov 27;288(20):2554-60
Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women.
Jiang R, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Liu S, Willett WC, Hu FB.
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

CONTEXT: Nuts are high in unsaturated (polyunsaturated and monounsaturated) fat and other nutrients that may improve glucose and insulin homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To examine prospectively the relationship between nut consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective cohort study of 83 818 women from 11 states in the Nurses' Health Study. The women were aged 34 to 59 years, had no history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer, completed a validated dietary questionnaire at baseline in 1980, and were followed up for 16 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident cases of type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: We documented 3206 new cases of type 2 diabetes. Nut consumption was inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and total energy intake. The multivariate relative risks (RRs) across categories of nut consumption (never/almost never, <once/week, 1-4 times/week, and > or =5 times/week) for a 28-g (1 oz) serving size were 1.0, 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-1.00), 0.84 (0.95% CI, 0.76-0.93), and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.60-0.89) (P for trend <.001). Further adjustment for intakes of dietary fats, cereal fiber, and other dietary factors did not appreciably change the results. The inverse association persisted within strata defined by levels of BMI, smoking, alcohol use, and other diabetes risk factors. Consumption of peanut butter was also inversely associated with type 2 diabetes. The multivariate RR was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.68-0.91; P for trend <.001) in women consuming peanut butter 5 times or more a week (equivalent to > or =140 g [5 oz] of peanuts/week) compared with those who never/almost never ate peanut butter. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest potential benefits of higher nut and peanut butter consumption in lowering risk of type 2 diabetes in women. To avoid increasing caloric intake, regular nut consumption can be recommended as a replacement for consumption of refined grain products or red or processed meats.

Eur J Clin Nutr. 1992 Feb;46(2):111-5
Olive oil instead of butter increases net cholesterol excretion from the small bowel.
Bosaeus I, Belfrage L, Lindgren C, Andersson H.
Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Goteborg, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Butter was replaced by olive oil in a controlled 100 g fat diet in order to study the effect of saturated fats (SAFA) versus monounsaturated fats (MUFA) on small-bowel sterol excretion in eleven healthy ileostomates. Bile acids and neutral sterols were measured by gas-liquid chromatography. Net cholesterol excretion (excretion minus intake) was 84 +/- 25 mg/24 h (mean +/- SE) on the SAFA diet and increased to 218 +/- 32 mg/24 h on the MUFA diet (P less than 0.01). The bile acid excretion tended to be somewhat lower on the MUFA diet, but this was significant only for chenodeoxycholic acid. Net sterol excretion (the sum of excretion of net cholesterol and bile acids) was significantly lower on the SAFA diet than on the MUFA diet (443 +/- 60 and 529 +/- 58 mg/24 h, respectively). The immediately increased excretion of cholesterol from the small bowel could thus explain the serum cholesterol-lowering effect of a change from a SAFA-rich to a MUFA-rich diet, though the mechanism for this change is still unclear.

Z Ernahrungswiss. 1983 Sep;22(3):157-68
Effect of a diet formula with high butter or margarine content on body weight reduction.
Wirths W, Rehage C, Bonnhoff N.

The effect of a fat-modified diet with 1100 kcal (4600 kJ) on the reduction of body weight and body fat was studied. A low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with predominant animal fat (diet T) was compared with a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with predominant vegetable fat (diet P). Diet T was composed of 52.1% of the energy as fat, 20.7% as protein and 27.2% as carbohydrates. Diet P was composed of 54.1% of the energy as fat, 18.9% as protein and 27.0% as carbohydrates. More than two-thirds of the fat in diet T was butter, in diet P margarine. The study was carried out with 30 subjects (8 men) over two 21-day periods. With diet T, men had a mean weight loss of 7.1 kg = 338 g/d, of which 3.2 kg = 152 g/d were proved to be body fat, while women had a mean weight loss of 4.4 kg = 210 g/d, of which 2.3 kg = 110 g/d were proved to be body fat. With diet P, men had a mean weight loss of 7,6 kg = 362 g/d, of which were 3.9 kg = 186 g/d body fat, while women lost 3.8 kg = 181 g/d of body weight on average, of which were 2.0 kg = 95 g/d body fat. An improvement of blood pressure was also found. Significant differences of the reduction of body weight and body fat between the diet with mostly animal fat and the diet with mostly vegetable fat were not found.

Atherosclerosis. 1997 May;131(1):7-16
Butter, margarine and serum lipoproteins.
Zock PL, Katan MB.
Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.

Intake of trans fatty acids unfavorably affects blood lipoproteins. As margarines are a major source of trans, claims for the advantages of margarines over butter need to be scrutinized. Here we review dietary trials that directly compared the effects of butter and margarine on blood lipids. We identified 20 studies in which subjects had stable body weights, and margarine and butter were exchanged in the diet at constant energy and fat intake. We calculated the changes in average blood lipid levels between study diets (49 comparisons) as a function of the percentage of calories as margarine substituted for butter. Replacing 10% of calories from butter by hard high-trans stick margarines lowered total serum cholesterol by 0.19, LDL by 0.11, and HDL by 0.02 mmol/l, and did not affect the total/HDL cholesterol ratio. Soft low-trans tub margarines decreased total cholesterol by 0.25 and LDL by 0.20 mmol/l, did not affect HDL, and decreased the total/HDL cholesterol ratio by 0.20. Based on the total/HDL cholesterol ratio, replacement of 30 g of butter per day by soft tub margarines would theoretically predict a reduction in coronary heart disease risk of 10%, while replacement of butter by hard, high-trans margarines would have no effect. Replacing butter by low-trans soft margarines favorably affects the blood lipoprotein profile and may reduce the predicted risk of coronary heart disease, but high-trans hard margarines probably confer no benefit over butter.

JAMA. 1990 Feb 2;263(5):688-92
Consumption of olive oil, butter, and vegetable oils and coronary heart disease risk factors. The Research Group ATS-RF2 of the Italian National Research Council.
Trevisan M, Krogh V, Freudenheim J, Blake A, Muti P, Panico S, Farinaro E, Mancini M, Menotti A, Ricci G.
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, State University of New York, Buffalo 14214-299.

The cross-sectional association between consumption of various fats (eg, butter, olive oil, and vegetable oil) and risk factors for coronary heart disease was analyzed in a sample of 4903 Italian men and women 20 to 59 years of age. The intake of fats was ascertained by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Increased consumption of butter was associated with significantly higher blood pressure and serum cholesterol and glucose levels for men; in women only the association with glucose reached statistical significance. In both sexes consumption of olive oil and vegetable oil was inversely associated with serum cholesterol and glucose levels and systolic blood pressure. These findings were adjusted for confounding effects of other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. These cross-sectional findings from a large population sample suggest that consumption of butter may detrimentally affect coronary risk factors, while polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats may be associated with a lower coronary risk profile.

Int J Oncol. 2002 Oct;21(4):745-53
Effects of a high olive oil diet on the clinical behavior and histopathological features of rat DMBA-induced mammary tumors compared with a high corn oil diet.
Solanas M, Hurtado A, Costa I, Moral R, Menendez JA, Colomer R, Escrich E.
Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Medical Physiology Unit, Medical School, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

Effects of a high virgin olive oil diet on the promotion stage of dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats were investigated in comparison with those of a high corn oil diet. Animals were randomly placed into 4 groups: control, fed a normolipidic control diet (3% corn oil); M, fed a high corn oil diet (20%); O, fed a high olive oil diet (3% corn oil plus 17% olive oil); and MO, fed the high olive oil diet after 33 days of high corn oil diet. Whereas the high corn oil diet clearly stimulated the mammary carcinogenesis, reducing the latency time and increasing the tumor incidence, multiplicity and volume, the high olive oil diet led to a lower tumor incidence than in the former group, a latency time similar to that of the control and lower tumor multiplicity and volume even than in the control group. Moreover, the histopathological features of the adenocarcinomas in olive oil groups were compatible with a greater degree of differentiation. These data suggest that the high virgin olive oil diet would have acted as a negative modulator of the experimental mammary carcinogenesis conferring to the tumors a more benign clinical behavior and a lower histopathological malignancy in comparison with the control and high corn oil diets.


Eur J Nutr. 2001 Aug;40(4):161-7
Impact of diets containing corn oil or olive/sunflower oil mixture on the human plasma and lipoprotein lipid metabolism.
Wagner KH, Tomasch R, Elmadfa I.
Institute of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria.

BACKGROUND: The effects of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) rich diets compared to those that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as well as the effects of an intake of single oils compared to oil mixtures are controversially discussed and results are contradictory. AIM OF THIS STUDY: To evaluate the effects of a plant oil-mixture (olive/sunflower oil; saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated (S/M/P) = 14:69:17) high in oleic acid but also showing a moderate content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in comparison with a single, PUFA rich corn oil (S/M/P = 13:33:54) used in a normal, balanced diet on human plasma and lipoprotein metabolism. METHODS: The double-blind designed study comprised 28 healthy, non-smoking young men aged between 19 and 31 years. After two weeks of adjustment (mixed, balanced diet: 11.6 MJ average, average fat intake approximately 105 g/d), the design included a two week test period in which a diet with 80 g corn oil/d vs a mixture of 68 g olive- and 12 g sunflower oil/d (total 80 g) as the main fat source was given, followed by a crossover after two weeks. Compliance and ingestion of diets were monitored by assessing the fatty acid pattern in LDL and by determination of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in plasma and LDL. Results Diets were well incorporated due to the significant changes in plasma- and LDL-tocopherol levels and the significant different average ratio of oleic acid to linoleic acid in LDL. The PUFA-rich corn oil diet was able to reduce low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol from adjustment to T2 significantly (p < 0.01), which was also confirmed by a trend after cross over (p=0.15). Total cholesterol (only after cross over at T3), total triglycerides (TG) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG were significantly lower at T2 after the corn oil diet than after the mixed oil diet. Total high density lipoproteins (HDL) and HDL cholesterol remained unchanged by both diets. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that during the intervention of two weeks for each diet and the following cross over the corn oil diet had more influence on lipoprotein metabolism than the MUFA-rich diet. The hypocholesteremic effect of the PUFA-rich diet must also be connected with the high amount of unsaponifiable substances, mainly phytosterols in the corn oil.

J Am Coll Nutr. 1990 Oct;9(5):438-70
Food uses and health effects of corn oil.
Dupont J, White PJ, Carpenter MP, Schaefer EJ, Meydani SN, Elson CE, Woods M, Gorbach SL.
Food and Nutrition Science Consulting, Fort Collins, CO 80524.

This review of corn oil provides a scientific assessment of the current knowledge of its contribution to the American diet. Refined corn oil is composed of 99% triacylglycerols with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) 59%, monounsaturated fatty acid 24%, and saturated fatty acid (SFA) 13%. The PUFA is linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) primarily, with a small amount of linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) giving a n-6/n-3 ratio of 83. Corn oil contains a significant amount of ubiquinone and high amounts of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols (vitamin E) that protect it from oxidative rancidity. It has good sensory qualities for use as a salad and cooking oil. Corn oil is highly digestible and provides energy and essential fatty acids (EFA). Linoleic acid is a dietary essential that is necessary for integrity of the skin, cell membranes, the immune system, and for synthesis of icosanoids. Icosanoids are necessary for reproductive, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal functions and resistance to disease. Corn oil is a highly effective food oil for lowering serum cholesterol. Because of its low content of SFAs which raises cholesterol and its high content of PUFAs which lowers cholesterol, consumption of corn oil can replace SFAs with PUFAs, and the combination is more effective in lowering cholesterol than simple reduction of SFA. PUFA primarily lowers low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) which is atherogenic. Research shows that PUFA has little effect on high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) which is protective against atherosclerosis. PUFA generally improves the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C. Studies in animals show that PUFA is required for the growth of cancers; the amount required is considered to be greater than that which satisfies the EFA requirement of the host. At this time there is no indication from epidemiological studies that PUFA intake is associated with increased risk of breast or colon cancer, which have been suggested to be promoted by high-fat diets in humans. Recommendations for minimum PUFA intake to prevent gross EFA deficiency are about 3% of energy (en%). Recommendations for prevention of heart disease are 8-10 en%. Consumption of PUFA in the United States is 5-7 en%. The use of corn oil to contribute to a PUFA intake of 10 en% in the diet would be beneficial to heart health. No single source of salad or cooking oil provides an optimum fatty acid (FA) composition. Many questions remain to be answered about the relation of FA composition of the diet to various physiological functions and disease processes.

Nutr Rev. 2002 Jun;60(6):170-6
Olive oil as a functional food: epidemiology and nutritional approaches.
Stark AH, Madar Z.
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, Rehovot, Israel.

Olive oil is an integral ingredient of the Mediterranean diet and accumulating evidence suggests that it may have health benefits that include reduction of risk factors of coronary heart disease, prevention of several varieties of cancers, and modification of immune and inflammatory responses. Olive oil appears to be an example of a functional food, with varied components that may contribute to its overall therapeutic characteristics. Olive oil is known for its high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and is also a good source of phytochemicals including polyphenolic compounds, squalene, and alpha-tocopherol.

Cancer Causes Control. 2002 Jun;13(5):465-70
Olive oil, seed oils and other added fats in relation to ovarian cancer (Italy).
Bosetti C, Negri E, Franceschi S, Talamini R, Montella M, Conti E, Lagiou P, Parazzini F, La Vecchia C.
Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy.

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the potential role of olive oil and other added fats used for seasoning or cooking on ovarian carcinogenesis. METHODS: We analyzed data from a multicentre case-control study conducted between 1992 and 1999 in Italy, including a total of 1031 incident with a first diagnosis, histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 2,411 hospital controls with acute, non-malignant and non-gynecological conditions. The subjects' usual diet was investigated through a validated food-frequency questionnaire, including specific questions aimed at assessing added fat intake patterns. RESULTS: After allowance for study centre, year at interview, age, education, parity, oral contraceptive use, and total energy intake, a reduced risk of ovarian cancer was observed for high intake of olive oil (odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.93 for the highest quintile of intake, compared to the lowest one) and for a group of specific seed oils (i.e. sunflower, maize, peanut, and soya) (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.46-0.76). No significant associations were observed for mixed seed oils, butter, and margarine. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests a favorable effect of olive oil and other vegetable oils on ovarian cancer in this Italian population.

Lancet Oncol. 2000 Oct;1:107-12
Olive-oil consumption and health: the possible role of antioxidants.
Owen RW, Giacosa A, Hull WE, Haubner R, Wurtele G, Spiegelhalder B, Bartsch H.
Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg.

In the Mediterranean basin, olive oil, along with fruits, vegetables, and fish, is an important constituent of the diet, and is considered a major factor in preserving a healthy and relatively disease-free population. Epidemiological data show that the Mediterranean diet has significant protective effects against cancer and coronary heart disease. We present evidence that it is the unique profile of the phenolic fraction, along with high intakes of squalene and the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, which confer its health-promoting properties. The major phenolic compounds identified and quantified in olive oil belong to three different classes: simple phenols (hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol); secoiridoids (oleuropein, the aglycone of ligstroside, and their respective decarboxylated dialdehyde derivatives); and the lignans [(+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol and pinoresinol]. All three classes have potent antioxidant properties. High consumption of extra-virgin olive oils, which are particularly rich in these phenolic antioxidants (as well as squalene and oleic acid), should afford considerable protection against cancer (colon, breast, skin), coronary heart disease, and ageing by inhibiting oxidative stress.

Therapie. 2001 Sep-Oct;56(5):607-11
Coronary disease protective factors: antioxidant effect of olive oil.
Covas MI, Fito M, Marrugat J, Miro E, Farre M, de la Torre R, Gimeno E, Lopez-Sabater MC, Lamuela-Raventos R, de la Torre-Boronat MC.
Unitat de Lipids i Epidemiologia Cardiovascular, Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica (IMIM), Carrer Dr. Aiguader, 80, 08003 Barcelona, Espagne.

longside the French paradox, the REGICOR Study (Girona, Spain) has shown another paradox in the Mediterranean area: a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors with low incidence of myocardial infarction in the population of Girona, Spain. The antioxidant effects associated with olive oil consumption could explain part of this 'Mediterranean Paradox'. Virgin olive oils processed by two centrifugation phases and with low fruit ripeness have the highest levels of antioxidant content. The total content of phenolic compounds (PC) from virgin olive oil could delay LDL oxidation. The content and nature of olive oil PC have a high influence in the antioxidant capacity of an olive oil. PC from diet could bind human LDL in non-supplemented volunteers. PC from virgin olive oil could bind LDL and tyrosol is bioavailable in humans from ingestion of virgin olive oil in its natural form.

Thromb Haemost. 2001 Feb;85(2):280-6
Effects of diets containing olive oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil on the hemostatic system.
Junker R, Kratz M, Neufeld M, Erren M, Nofer JR, Schulte H, Nowak-Gottl U, Assmann G, Wahrburg U.
Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Munster, Germany.

Various studies have already shown that the fatty acid composition of dietary fat has different effects on hemostasis and platelet function. However, knowledge on this topic is incomplete. In the present study, fifty-eight healthy students received either a 4-week rapeseed oil [high content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and high n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio], an olive oil (high content of MUFA, low n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio) or a sunflower oil (low content of MUFA, low n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio) diet. In each group, effects on hemostatic parameters were compared with a wash-in diet rich in saturated fatty acids with respect to intermediate-time effects on the hemostatic system and platelet function. With the olive oil diet, a reduction of coagulation factors VIIc, XIIc, XIIa, and Xc was found, whereas sunflower oil led to lower values of coagulation factors XIIc, XIIa, and IXc. In all study groups levels of plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin were lower in week 4 than at baseline. Lower fibrinogen binding on platelets was found after the sunflower oil diet, whereas expression of CD62 and spontaneous platelet aggregation were slightly higher after the olive oil diet. However, given the major differences in the fatty acid compositions of the diets, the differences between the groups with respect to hemostasis tended to be small. Therefore, the clinical significance of the present findings remains to be evaluated.

J Appl Microbiol. 2001 Feb;90(2):279-84
Antibacterial activity of ozonized sunflower oil (Oleozon).
Sechi LA, Lezcano I, Nunez N, Espim M, Dupre I, Pinna A, Molicotti P, Fadda G, Zanetti S.
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Microbiologia e Clinica, Universita degli studi di Sassari, Viale S. Pietro 43/B, 07100 Sassari, Italy.

AIMS: To evaluate the antimicrobial effect of the ozonized sunflower oil (Oleozon) on different bacterial species isolated from different sites. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effect of Oleozon on Mycobacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, Pseudomonas and Escherichia coli was tested. The sunflower oil was ozonized at the Centro de Investigaciones del Ozone (CENIC, Havana, Cuba) by an ozone generator. MICs were determined by the agar dilution method. For Mycobacteria, the MIC of Oleozon was determined on solid medium by a microdrop agar proportion test. Oleozon showed antimicrobial activity against all strains analysed, with an MIC ranging from 1.18 to 9.5 mg ml-1. CONCLUSION: Oleozon showed a valuable antimicrobial activity against all micro-organisms tested. Results suggest that Mycobacteria are more susceptible to Oleozon than the other bacteria tested. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The wide availability of sunflower oil makes Oleozon a competitive antimicrobial agent. These results should prompt the setting up of some clinical trials to compare Oleozon with other antimicrobial agents.

Thromb Haemost. 1992 Mar 2;67(3):352-6
Rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets enhance platelet in vitro aggregation and thromboxane production in healthy men when compared with milk fat or habitual diets.
Mutanen M, Freese R, Valsta LM, Ahola I, Ahlstrom A.
Department of Nutrition, University of Helsinki, Finland.

In this highly controlled trial, 26 normolipidemic men (average age 28 years, range 18 to 60) were fed a baseline diet high in milk fat (MF) (fat 36% of energy, saturates 19%, monounsaturates 11%, polyunsaturates 4%), followed by a diet high in sunflower oil (SO) (fat 38% of energy, saturates 13%, monounsaturates 10%, polyunsaturates 13%) and another diet high in low erucic-acid rapeseed oil (RO) (fat 38% of energy, saturates 12%, monounsaturates 16%, polyunsaturates 8%). All diets were mixed natural diets with the same cholesterol contents. The baseline milk fat diet was given for 14 days and the oil diets for 24 days in a blind cross-over design. The platelet in vitro aggregation (slope %/min) induced by 1, 2 and 3 microM ADP and collagen (25 micrograms/ml PRP) was highly significantly (p less than 0.001) increased after both oil diets when compared with the results from the milk fat diet. The aggregation pattern determined by threshold collagen concentration confirmed increased collagen sensitivity of the platelets after the rapeseed oil diet (p less than 0.001). The enhancement of platelet aggregation was associated with increased in vitro platelet thromboxane production after the oil diets vs. the milk fat diet (p less than 0.05 after the sunflower oil diet and p less than 0.001 after the rapeseed oil diet).

Anticancer Res. 1991 Jan-Feb;11(1):209-15
The use of sesame oil and other vegetable oils in the inhibition of human colon cancer growth in vitro.
Salerno JW, Smith DE.
Department of Physiological and Biological Sciences, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa 52556.

Sesame contains large quantities of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), linoleic acid, in the form triglycerides. The antineoplastic properties of many PUFAs such as linoleic acid and their metabolites are known. We tested the hypothesis that natural vegetable oils, such as sesame oil and its component linoleic acid, when added to human colon adenocarcinoma cells growing in tissue culture would inhibit their growth and that normal colon cells would not be similarly affected. Three human colon cancer cell lines and one normal human colon cell line were exposed to the following: (1) pure linoleic acid; (2) lipase-digested sesame oil; (3) undigested sesame oil; (4) five additional common vegetable oils; (5) mineral oil. Linoleic acid inhibited the in vitro growth of all three malignant human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. The normal colon cell line showed dramatically less inhibition of growth. Lipase-digested sesame oil (LDSO) and undigested sesame oil (UDSO) produced greater inhibition of growth of all three malignant colon cell lines than of the normal colon cells. Five other common vegetable oils containing various amounts of PUFAs such as corn, soybean, safflower, olive and coconut oils, all in their lipase-digested form, were found to dramatically inhibit the growth of the HT-29 malignant human colon cell line. Undigested olive and safflower oils also inhibited the HT-29 cells although not as markedly as the lipase-digested oils. Mineral oil did not inhibit the growth of HT-29 cells. Both lauric and palmitic acid, which are saturated fatty acids found in abundance in coconut oil inhibits the HT-29 cells more strongly than linoleic acid, while oleic acid did not inhibit. We conclude that many vegetable oils including sesame contain in vitro antineoplastic properties and that this finding warrants further investigation both in vitro and in vivo to assess their possible chemotherapeutic potential.

Eur J Nutr. 2000 Apr;39(2):71-9
Dietary lean red meat and human evolution.
Mann N.
Department of Food Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Scientific evidence is accumulating that meat itself is not a risk factor for Western lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular disease, but rather the risk stems from the excessive fat and particularly saturated fat associated with the meat of modern domesticated animals. In our own studies, we have shown evidence that diets high in lean red meat can actually lower plasma cholesterol, contribute significantly to tissue omega-3 fatty acid and provide a good source of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. A study of human and pre-human diet history shows that for a period of at least 2 million years the human ancestral line had been consuming increasing quantities of meat. During that time, evolutionary selection was in action, adapting our genetic make up and hence our physiological features to a diet high in lean meat. This meat was wild game meat, low in total and saturated fat and relatively rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The evidence presented in this review looks at various lines of study which indicate the reliance on meat intake as a major energy source by pre-agricultural humans. The distinct fields briefly reviewed include: fossil isotope studies, human gut morphology, human encephalisation and energy requirements, optimal foraging theory, insulin resistance and studies on hunter-gatherer societies. In conclusion, lean meat is a healthy and beneficial component of any well-balanced diet as long as it is fat trimmed and consumed as part of a varied diet.

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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