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Nuts for your heart
Brazil nuts
Nut consumption, vegetarian diets, ischemic heart disease risk, and all-cause mortality: evidence from epidemiologic studies.
Sabate J.
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, CA 92350, USA.
Am J Clin Nutr 1999 Sep:;70(3 Suppl):500S-503S

Perhaps one of the most unexpected and novel findings in nutritional epidemiology in the past 5 y has been that nut consumption seems to protect against ischemic heart disease (IHD). Frequency and quantity of nut consumption have been documented to be higher in vegetarian than in nonvegetarian populations. Nuts also constitute an important part of other plant-based diets, such as Mediterranean and Asian diets. In a large, prospective epidemiologic study of Seventh-day Adventists in California, we found that frequency of nut consumption had a substantial and highly significant inverse association with risk of myocardial infarction and death from IHD. The Iowa Women's Health Study also documented an association between nut consumption and decreased risk of IHD. The protective effect of nuts on IHD has been found in men and women and in the elderly. Importantly, nuts have similar associations in both vegetarians and nonvegetarians. The protective effect of nut consumption on IHD is not offset by increased mortality from other causes. Moreover, frequency of nut consumption has been found to be inversely related to all-cause mortality in several population groups such as whites, blacks, and the elderly. Thus, nut consumption may not only offer protection against IHD, but also increase longevity.

Harv Heart Lett 2002 Sep;13(1):6

One of the oddest findings of nutrition research over the past decade is that walnuts, almonds, and other nuts are good for your heart.
The first few studies showing this were written off as "nuts" or dismissed because they were funded by the nut industry. But now several large, independent studies all suggest the same thing - a handful of nuts a day might prevent a heart attack or sudden death due to an erratic heart rhythm.
The latest plug for nuts comes from the Harvard-based Physicians' Health Study. The 22,000 male doctors who volunteered for this project reported how often they ate different foods, including nuts, at the start of the study in 1982. Over the next seventeen years, 201 of the men died when their hearts suddenly stopped beating. Sudden death was more likely to strike men who rarely ate nuts than those who ate nuts at least twice a week. (Archives of Internal Medicine, June 24, 2002, pp. 1382-87.)
How could eating nuts prevent sudden death? For one thing, many nuts, especially walnuts, are good sources of omega-3 fatty acids. These are the same types of unsaturated fats found in some fish. Omega-3 fatty acids smooth out abnormal heart rhythms. Like aspirin, they also keep blood clots from forming by making platelets less sticky and less likely to clump.
Nuts have other nutritional virtues, too. They are rich in arginine, an amino acid the body needs to make a tiny molecule called nitric oxide. Nitric oxide helps relax narrowed blood vessels and ease blood flow. Nuts also contain natural vitamin E, folic acid, magnesium, potassium, and fiber.
All of these nut nutrients may be good for the heart - if you eat them the right way. Gobbling nuts on top of your usual snacks and meals won't help much. At 185 calories an ounce, eating a handful of walnuts a day without cutting back on anything else could make you gain 10 pounds or more in the course of a year. Instead, grab some nuts in place of chips or cookies when you need a snack. Better yet, use nuts in place of meat in pasta and other dishes, or add them to salads for a healthful and tasty crunch.

Nut consumption and decreased risk of sudden cardiac death in the Physicians' Health Study.
Albert CM, Gaziano JM, Willett WC, Manson JE.
Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 900 Commonwealth Ave E, Boston, MA 02215-1204, USA.
Arch Intern Med 2002 Jun 24;162(12):1382-7

BACKGROUND: Dietary nut intake has been associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease mortality; however, the mechanism is unclear. Since components of nuts may have antiarrhythmic properties, part of the benefit may be due to a reduction in sudden cardiac death. METHODS: We prospectively assessed whether increasing frequency of nut consumption, as ascertained by an abbreviated food frequency questionnaire at 12 months of follow-up, was associated with a lower risk of sudden cardiac death and other coronary heart disease end points among 21 454 male participants enrolled in the US Physicians' Health Study. Participants were followed up for an average of 17 years. RESULTS: Dietary nut intake was associated with a significantly reduced risk of sudden cardiac death after controlling for known cardiac risk factors and other dietary habits (P for trend,.01). Compared with men who rarely or never consumed nuts, those who consumed nuts 2 or more times per week had reduced risks of sudden cardiac death (relative risk, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.92) and total coronary heart disease death (relative risk, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.98). In contrast, nut intake was not associated with significantly reduced risks of nonsudden coronary heart disease death or nonfatal myocardial infarction. CONCLUSION: These prospective data in US male physicians suggest that the inverse association between nut consumption and total coronary heart disease death is primarily due to a reduction in the risk of sudden cardiac death.

Nut consumption, lipids, and risk of a coronary event.
Fraser GE.
Center for Health Research, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, CA 92350, USA.
Clin Cardiol 1999 Jul;22(7 Suppl):III11-5

In the past, many have avoided nuts because of their high fat content. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, however, recommends regular consumption of this food along with seeds and dried beans (4-5 servings per week) as part of a diet to control hypertension. Nuts are nutrient-dense and most of their fat is unsaturated. They are also perhaps the best natural source of vitamin E and are relatively concentrated repositories of dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, and arginine, the dietary precursor of nitric oxide. Human feeding studies have demonstrated reductions of 8-12% in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol when almonds and walnuts are substituted for more traditional fats. Other studies show that macadamias and hazelnuts appear at least as beneficial as fats in commonly recommended diets. Whether consuming modest quantities of nuts daily may promote weight gain is not known with certainty, but preliminary data suggest that this is unlikely. Four of the best and largest cohort studies in nutritional epidemiology have now reported that eating nuts frequently is associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease of the order of 30-50%. The findings are very consistent in subgroup analyses and unlikely to be due to confounding. Possible mechanisms include reduction in LDL cholesterol, the antioxidant actions of vitamin E, and the effects on the endothelium and platelet function of higher levels of nitric oxide. Although nuts may account for a relatively small percentage of dietary calories, the potential interacting effects of these factors on disease risk may be considerable.

Peanut consumption improves indices of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy adults.
Alper CM, Mattes RD.
Purdue University, Department of Foods and Nutrition, West Lafayette, Indiana.
J Am Coll Nutr 2003 Apr;22(2):133-41

BACKGROUND: Diets containing nuts reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This has primarily been attributed to their fatty acid composition, but other constituents may also contribute. Peanuts, the most widely consumed 'nut' (actually a legume), are a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), magnesium and folate, but their effects on CVD risk factors are poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: This study determined the effects of chronic peanut consumption on diet composition as well as serum lipids, magnesium and homocysteine concentrations in free-living subjects under different conditions of peanut intake. DESIGN: Fifteen normolipidemic adults participated in a 30-week cross-over intervention. Subjects were provided 500 (+136) kcal as peanuts during an eight-week free feeding (FF) diet. The same amount of peanuts was added during a three-week addition (ADD) diet or replaced an equal amount of other fats in the diet during an eight-week substitution (SUB) diet. RESULTS: Energy intake from fat was increased through greater intake of MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids, while saturated fatty acid intake remained relatively stable under all conditions. Triacylglycerol (TAG) was reduced by 24% during ADD (p < 0.05), by 17% during SUB (p < 0.05) and by 14% during four-weeks of FF, but then rebounded to baseline by week 8. Dietary fiber, magnesium, folate, alpha tocopherol, copper and arginine increased during all treatments (p < 0.05). Serum magnesium increased in 13 of 15 subjects during FF (p < 0.05). No changes were found in total plasma homocysteine concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Regular peanut consumption lowers serum TAG, augments consumption of nutrients associated with reduced CVD risk and increases serum magnesium concentration.

Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women.
Jiang R, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Liu S, Willett WC, Hu FB.
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA
Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2002 Oct;72(5):341-702115, USA.

CONTEXT: Nuts are high in unsaturated (polyunsaturated and monounsaturated) fat and other nutrients that may improve glucose and insulin homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To examine prospectively the relationship between nut consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective cohort study of 83 818 women from 11 states in the Nurses' Health Study. The women were aged 34 to 59 years, had no history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer, completed a validated dietary questionnaire at baseline in 1980, and were followed up for 16 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident cases of type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: We documented 3206 new cases of type 2 diabetes. Nut consumption was inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and total energy intake. The multivariate relative risks (RRs) across categories of nut consumption (never/almost never, (once/week, 1-4 times/week, and ) or =5 times/week) for a 28-g (1 oz) serving size were 1.0, 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-1.00), 0.84 (0.95% CI, 0.76-0.93), and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.60-0.89) (P for trend <.001). Further adjustment for intakes of dietary fats, cereal fiber, and other dietary factors did not appreciably change the results. The inverse association persisted within strata defined by levels of BMI, smoking, alcohol use, and other diabetes risk factors. Consumption of peanut butter was also inversely associated with type 2 diabetes. The multivariate RR was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.68-0.91; P for trend <.001) in women consuming peanut butter 5 times or more a week (equivalent to > or =140 g [5 oz] of peanuts/week) compared with those who never/almost never ate peanut butter. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest potential benefits of higher nut and peanut butter consumption in lowering risk of type 2 diabetes in women. To avoid increasing caloric intake, regular nut consumption can be recommended as a replacement for consumption of refined grain products or red or processed meats.
Effects of walnut consumption as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet on serum components.
Morgan JM, Horton K, Reese D, Carey C, Walker K, Capuzzi DM.
Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pa 19107, USA.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2002 Oct;72(5):341-7.

Serum components, such as lipoproteins, coagulation factors (factor VII, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), fibrinogen), and homocysteine have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Dietary intervention with a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet has favorably influenced cardiovascular disease and certain food, specifically the consumption of nuts, has been associated with reduced cardiovascular risks. The effects of walnuts, as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet, on serum cardiovascular risk factors were determined. Sixty-seven (67) outpatients with borderline high total cholesterol following a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet for six weeks before being randomly assigned to continue the diet or have 64 grams/day of walnuts in conjunction with the diet. After six weeks, the patients' diets were switched. Therefore, all patients consumed 64 grams/day of walnuts for six weeks during part of the trial as part of a low-fat, low cholesterol diet. Serum lipids demonstrated a significant reduction in triacyglycerols and favorable trend with decreases in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and a slight increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. No statistical effects on homocysteine or the coagulation factors were observed. However, there was a slight favorable trend for tPA and PAI-1. This study demonstrated that walnuts, when consumed as part of a low fat, low-cholesterol diet, have a beneficial effect on serum cardiovascular risk factors. However, these changes may not explain all of the beneficial effects that walnut consumption has on cardiovascular disease.

Effect of diets enriched in almonds on insulin action and serum lipids in adults with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes.
Lovejoy JC, Most MM, Lefevre M, Greenway FL, Rood JC.
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge 70808, USA.
Am J Clin Nutr 2002 Nov;76(5):1000-6

BACKGROUND: Nuts appear to have cardiovascular benefits but their effect in diabetic patients is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess effects of almond-enriched diets on insulin sensitivity and lipids in patients with normoglycemia or type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Study 1 assessed the effect of almonds on insulin sensitivity in 20 free-living healthy volunteers who received 100 g almonds/d for 4 wk. Study 2 was a randomized crossover study that compared 4 diets in 30 volunteers with type 2 diabetes: 1) high-fat, high-almond (HFA; 37% total fat, 10% from almonds); 2) low-fat, high-almond (LFA; 25% total fat, 10% from almonds); 3) high-fat control (HFC; 37% total fat, 10% from olive or canola oil); and 4) low-fat control (LFC; 25% total fat, 10% from olive or canola oil). After each 4-wk diet, serum lipids and oral glucose tolerance were measured. RESULTS: In study 1, almond consumption did not change insulin sensitivity significantly, although body weight increased and total and LDL cholesterol decreased by 21% and 29%, respectively (P < 0.05). In study 2, total cholesterol was lowest with the HFA diet (4.46 +/- 0.14, 4.52 +/- 0.14, 4.63 +/- 0.14, and 4.63 +/- 0.14 mmol/L with the HFA, HFC, LFA, and LFC diets, respectively; P = 0.0004 for fat level). HDL cholesterol was significantly lower with the almond diets (P = 0.002); however, no significant effect of fat source on LDL:HDL was observed. Glycemia was unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: Almond-enriched diets do not alter insulin sensitivity in healthy adults or glycemia in patients with diabetes. Almonds had beneficial effects on serum lipids in healthy adults and produced changes similar to high monounsaturated fat oils in diabetic patients.

Effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics.
Alper CM, Mattes RD.
Purdue University, Department of Foods and Nutrition, West-Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002 Aug;26(8):1129-37

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics. DESIGN: Thirty-week, cross-over, intervention study. Participants were provided 2113+/-494 kJ/day (505+/-118 kcal/day) as peanuts for 8 weeks with no dietary guidance (free feeding-FF), 3 weeks with instructions to add peanuts to their customary diet (addition-ADD) and 8 weeks where peanuts replaced an equal amount of other fats in the diet (substitution-SUB). SUBJECTS: Fifteen, healthy, normal-weight (BMI of 23.3+/-1.8) adults, aged 33+/-9 y. MEASUREMENTS: Dietary intake, appetitive indices, energy expenditure, body weight and hedonics. RESULTS: During FF, peanut consumption elicited a strong compensatory dietary response (ie subjects compensated for 66% of the energy provided by the nuts) and body weight gain (1.0 kg) was significantly lower than predicted (3.6 kg; P<0.01). When customary dietary fat was replaced with the energy from peanuts, energy intake, as well as body weight, were maintained precisely. Participants were unaware that body weight was a research focus. Resting energy expenditure was increased by 11% after regular peanut consumption for 19 weeks (P<0.01). Chronic consumption of peanuts did not lead to a decline in pleasantness or hunger ratings for peanuts nor did it lead to any hedonic shift for selected snack foods with other taste qualities during any of the three treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Despite being energy dense, peanuts have a high satiety value and chronic ingestion evokes strong dietary compensation and little change in energy balance.

A monounsaturated fatty acid-rich pecan-enriched diet favorably alters the serum lipid profile of healthy men and women.
Rajaram S, Burke K, Connell B, Myint T, Sabate J.
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA
J Nutr 2001 Sep;131(9):2275-9

Frequent consumption of nuts is associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effect of pecans rich in monounsaturated fat as an alternative to the Step 1 diet in modifying serum lipids and lipoproteins in men and women with normal to moderately high serum cholesterol. In a single-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover feeding study, we assigned 23 subjects (mean age: 38 y; 9 women, 14 men) to follow two diets, each for 4 wk: a Step I diet and a pecan-enriched diet (accomplished by proportionately reducing all food items in a Step I diet by one fifth for a 20% isoenergetic replacement with pecans). The percentage of energy from fat in the two diets was 28.3 and 39.6%, respectively. Both diets improved the lipid profile; however, the pecan-enriched diet decreased both serum total and LDL cholesterol by 0.32 mmol/L (6.7 and 10.4%, respectively) and triglyceride by 0.14 mmol/L (11.1%) beyond the Step I diet, while increasing HDL cholesterol by 0.06 mmol/L (2.5 mg/dL). Serum apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a) decreased by 11.6 and 11.1%, respectively, and apolipoprotein A1 increased by 2.2% when subjects consumed the pecan compared with the Step I diet. These differences were all significant (P < 0.05). A 20% isoenergetic replacement of a Step I diet with pecans favorably altered the serum lipid profile beyond the Step I diet, without increasing body weight. Nuts such as pecans that are rich in monounsaturated fat may therefore be recommended as part of prescribed cholesterol-lowering diet of patients or habitual diet of healthy individuals.

Pecans lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in people with normal lipid levels.
Morgan WA, Clayshulte BJ.
Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces 88003, USA.
J Am Diet Assoc 2000 Mar;100(3):312-8

OBJECTIVE: To compare serum lipid profiles and dietary intakes of people with normal lipid levels who consumed pecans and those who did not consume nuts. DESIGN: Eight-week, randomized, controlled study of pecan treatment group vs control group. SUBJECT: Nineteen people with normal lipid levels completed the study; 10 had been randomly assigned to the pecan treatment group (7 women, 3 men, mean age = 45 +/- 10 years) and 9 to the control group (8 women, 1 man, mean age = 37 +/- 12 years). INTERVENTION: The pecan treatment group consumed 68 g pecans per day for 8 weeks plus self-selected diets. The pecans contributed 459 kcal and 44 g fat daily. The control group avoided nuts and consumed self-selected diets. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total triglyceride levels were measured at the time of entrance to the study (baseline), week 4, and week 8. Computer analyses were done on five 3-day food records. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Comparisons were made using analysis of variance or paired t test. RESULTS: LDL-C was lowered in the pecan treatment group from 2.61 +/- 0.49 mmol/L at baseline to 2.35 +/- 0.49 at week 4 (P < .05) and to 2.46 +/- 0.59 at week 8 (P < .05). At week 8, total cholesterol and HDL-C in the pecan treatment group were significantly lower (P < .05) than in the control group (total cholesterol: 4.22 +/- 0.83 vs 5.02 +/- 0.54 mmol/L; HDL-C: 1.37 +/- 0.23 vs 1.47 +/- 0.34 mmol/L). Dietary fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, insoluble fiber, magnesium, and energy were significantly higher in the pecan treatment group than in the control group. Body mass indexes and body weights were unchanged in both groups. APPLICATIONS: Pecans can be included in a healthful diet when energy intake and potential weight gain are addressed.

Brazil nuts have been classified as the foodstuffs that contain the highest level of unadulterated selenium, an essential trace element that appears to prevent cancer.
Characterization of selenium species in Brazil nuts by HPLC-ICP-MS and ES-MS.
Vonderheide AP, Wrobel K, Kannamkumarath SS, B'Hymer C, Montes-Bayon M, Ponce De Leon C, Caruso JA.
Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0172, USA.
J Agric Food Chem 2002 Sep 25;50(20):5722-8

Brazil nuts have been classified as the foodstuffs that contain the highest level of unadulterated selenium, an essential trace element that appears to prevent cancer. To date, characterization of the selenium species in brazil nuts has not yet been investigated. In this work, various sample preparation approaches, including microwave extractions and enzymatic treatments, are examined with the goal of species preservation and subsequent selenium speciation; of these approaches, an enzymatic treatment with Proteinase K proved most effective. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation strategies and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection schemes will also be presented. Extracts are evaluated against available standards for the commercially obtainable seleno-amino acids, selenomethionine (SeMet), selenoethionine (SeEt), and selenocystine (SeCys); selenomethionine was demonstrated to be the most abundant of these seleno-amino acids. Further characterization of unidentified selenium-containing peaks is attempted by the employment of several procedures, including electrospray-mass spectrometry (ES-MS). A peptide structure was identified; however, this was considered a tentative proposal due to the large background produced by the extremely complicated brazil nut matrix.

A comparison of methods of assessment of dietary selenium intakes in Otago, New Zealand.
Duffield AJ, Thomson CD.
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Br J Nutr 1999 Aug;82(2):131-8

The aims of the present study were (1) to compare three methods of assessment of dietary Se intake, i.e. chemical analysis of duplicate diets, diet records and a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed specifically for Se, and (2) to determine dietary Se intakes of residents of Otago, New Zealand. The FFQ was completed by 110 free-living adults. Diet records (3 d) and duplicate diet collections were carried out by forty-three of these subjects chosen on the basis of low blood Se concentration, and during a period when consumption of the high-Se foods fish, kidney, liver and Brazil nuts was discouraged. Mean Se intakes were similar for duplicate diet analysis (29 (SD 13) micrograms/d) and diet record assessments (28 (SD 15) micrograms/d). Estimates of intakes from the FFQ for the subgroup of forty-three subjects were higher (51 (SD 26) micrograms/d) than those from duplicate diets and diet records. Values from duplicate diet analysis and diet record assessments were strongly correlated (r 0.7, P = 0.0001), but difference plots indicated a lack of agreement between the two methods. Thus, diet record assessment was not adequate for predicting dietary Se intakes of individuals. Significant correlations were found for relationships between Se intake from duplicate diets (microgram/kg body weight per d) and plasma Se, Se intake from diet records (microgram/d and microgram/kg body weight per d) and plasma Se; and Se intake from the FFQ and whole-blood Se. Se intakes from duplicate diets and diet records were similar to those reported previously for New Zealanders, but lower than the recommended intakes in the USA (National Research Council, 1989), Australia (Truswell et al. 1990) and the UK (Department of Health, 1991) and the World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (1996) normative requirement.

Roasted hazelnuts--allergenic activity evaluated by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge.
Hansen KS, Ballmer-Weber BK, Luttkopf D, Skov PS, Wuthrich B, Bindslev-Jensen C, Vieths S, Poulsen LK.
Allergy Clinic, Department 7551, National University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Allergy 2003 Feb;58(2):132-8

BACKGROUND: Allergy to hazelnuts is a common example of birch pollen related food allergy. Symptoms upon ingestion are often confined to the mouth and throat, but severe systemic reactions have been described in some patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the reduction in allergenicity by roasting of the nuts. METHODS: Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) with roasted hazelnuts (140 degrees C, 40 min) were performed in 17 birch pollen allergic patients with DBPCFC-confirmed food allergy to raw hazelnuts. The effect of roasting was further evaluated by skin prick test (SPT), histamine release (HR), measurement of specific IgE, and IgE-inhibition experiments. RESULTS: In 5/17 patients the DBPCFC with the roasted nuts were positive. The symptoms were generally mild and included OAS (oral allergy syndrome) in all patients. Roasting of the nuts significantly reduced the allergenic activity evaluated by SPT, HR, specific IgE, and IgE-inhibition. Immunoblotting experiments with recombinant hazelnut allergens showed sensitization against Cor a 1.04 in 16/17 patients and against Cor a 2 in 7/17 patients. None of the patients were sensitized to Cor a 8. Challenge-positive patients did not differ from the rest in IgE-binding pattern. CONCLUSIONS: All the applied methods indicated that roasting of hazelnuts reduces the allergenicity, but since 5/17 birch pollen allergic patients were DBPCFC-positive to the roasted nuts, ingestion of roasted hazelnuts or products containing roasted hazelnuts can not be considered safe for a number of hazelnut allergic consumers. For patients with a history of severe allergic symptoms upon ingestion of hazelnuts, thorough and conscientious food labelling of hazelnuts and hazelnut residues is essential.

Nut consumption, lipids, and risk of a coronary event.
Fraser GE.
Center for Health Research, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, CA 92350, USA.
Clin Cardiol 1999 Jul;22(7 Suppl):III11-5

In the past, many have avoided nuts because of their high fat content. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, however, recommends regular consumption of this food along with seeds and dried beans (4-5 servings per week) as part of a diet to control hypertension. Nuts are nutrient-dense and most of their fat is unsaturated. They are also perhaps the best natural source of vitamin E and are relatively concentrated repositories of dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, and arginine, the dietary precursor of nitric oxide. Human feeding studies have demonstrated reductions of 8-12% in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol when almonds and walnuts are substituted for more traditional fats. Other studies show that macadamias and hazelnuts appear at least as beneficial as fats in commonly recommended diets. Whether consuming modest quantities of nuts daily may promote weight gain is not known with certainty, but preliminary data suggest that this is unlikely. Four of the best and largest cohort studies in nutritional epidemiology have now reported that eating nuts frequently is associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease of the order of 30-50%. The findings are very consistent in subgroup analyses and unlikely to be due to confounding. Possible mechanisms include reduction in LDL cholesterol, the antioxidant actions of vitamin E, and the effects on the endothelium and platelet function of higher levels of nitric oxide. Although nuts may account for a relatively small percentage of dietary calories, the potential interacting effects of these factors on disease risk may be considerable.

Dietary intake of some important mycotoxins by the Swedish population.
Thuvander A, Moller T, Barbieri HE, Jansson A, Salomonsson AC, Olsen M.
National Food Administration, Uppsala, Sweden.
Food Addit Contam 2001 Aug;18(8):696-706

To estimate the intake of some mycotoxins from food in Sweden, approximately 600 samples were collected and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin and trichothecenes. Intakes were calculated for average and high consumers among adults and children and compared with the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of the respective toxin. Mycotoxin levels in the food samples were generally below the European/national maximum limits. However, high levels of aflatoxins were found in some samples of Brazil nuts and pistachios. The intake of ochratoxin A, patulin and trichothecenes was found to be below the temporary, TDI values (tTDI) proposed for these toxins by international expert groups, although the intake of trichothecenes (expressed as T-2 toxin equivalents) in children with a high consumption of cereals was close to the tTDI for T-2 toxin. Since there is to date no established numerical tTDI for aflatoxins, such a value was estimated for use within the project. The calculated intake of aflatoxins in high consumers exceeded this tTDI by a factor of two. In conclusion, the exposure to mycotoxins in Sweden did not generally, give rise to any major health concerns in the present study. However, the high levels of aflatoxins in certain commodities emphasize the need for preventive measures and improved control of toxin levels in these food items. Furthermore, the need for regulatory levels for trichothecenes in cereal products should be evaluated.

Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men.
Garg ML, Blake RJ, Wills RB.
Nutrition & Dietetics, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.
J Nutr 2003 Apr;133(4):1060-3

This study was conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering potential of macadamia nuts. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic men (mean age 54 y) were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/d), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine concentrations and the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids were determined before and after treatment. Plasma MUFA 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7) and 20:1(n-9) were elevated after intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA concentrations were unaffected by macadamia nut consumption. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 3.0 and 5.3%, respectively, and HDL cholesterol levels increased by 7.9% in hypercholesterolemic men after macadamia nut consumption. Plasma triglyceride and homocysteine concentrations were not affected by treatment. Macadamia nut consumption was associated with a significant increase in the relative intake of MUFA and a reduced relative intake of saturated fatty acids and PUFA. This study demonstrates that macadamia nut consumption as part of a healthy diet favorably modifies the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic men despite their diet being high in fat.

Serum lipid effects of a high-monounsaturated fat diet based on macadamia nuts.
Curb JD, Wergowske G, Dobbs JC, Abbott RD, Huang B.
Department of Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu 96817, USA
Arch Intern Med 2000 Apr 24;160(8):1154-8

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified potential beneficial effects of eating nuts, most of which have substantial amounts of monounsaturated fats. Macadamia nuts are 75% fat by weight, 80% of which is monounsaturated. OBJECTIVE: To examine variations in serum lipid levels in response to a high-monounsaturated fat diet based on macadamia nuts. METHODS: A randomized crossover trial of three 30-day diets was conducted in 30 volunteers aged 18 to 53 years from a free-living population. Each was fed a "typical American" diet high in saturated fat (37% energy from fat); an American Heart Association Step 1 diet (30% energy from fat); and a macadamia nut-based monounsaturated fat diet (37% energy from fat) in random order. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. RESULTS: Mean total cholesterol level after the typical American diet was 5.20 mmol/L (201 mg/dL). After the Step 1 diet and the macadamia nut diet, total cholesterol level was 4.99 mmol/L (193 mg/dL) and 4.95 mmol/L (191 mg/dL), respectively. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 3.37 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) (typical diet), 3.21 mmol/L (124 mg/dL) (Step 1 diet), and 3.22 mmol/L (125 mg/dL) (macadamia nut diet). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 1.43 mmol/L (55 mg/dL) (typical), 1.34 mmol/L (52 mg/dL) (Step 1), and 1.37 mmol/L (53 mg/dL) (macadamia nut). Lipid values after the Step 1 and macadamia nut diets were significantly different from those after the typical diet (P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: The macadamia nut-based diet high in monounsaturated fat and the moderately low-fat diet both had potentially beneficial effects on cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels when compared with a typical American diet.

Hypersensitivity of cashew nut.
Li H, Zhang H.
Department of Allergy, PUP Allergy Diagnosis Centre, Peking.
Chin Med Sci J 1997 Sep;12(3):189-92

Cashew nut hypersensitivity can cause severe reactions even life threatening. In the past few years, there are more cases of cashew nut allergy than before in Beijing. Thirty patients with cashew nut allergy were analyzed in this paper. Case history, skin test, specific IgE and oral blinded challenge were used in the diagnosis.

   SEEDS (pumpkin seeds and sunflower seeds) 
Phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Current evidence-based evaluation.
Dreikorn K, Berges R, Pientka L, Jonas U.
Urologische Klinik, Zentralkrankenhaus, St.-Jurgen-Str., 28205 Bremen.
Urologe A 2002 Sep;41(5):447-51

Despite its popularity as a medication in various European countries or as a nutritional supplement in the United States, the role of plant extracts for the treatment of LUTS due to BPH remains controversial. Only a few randomized clinical trials that meet standard criteria of evidence-based medicine but with relatively short follow-up times and some meta-analyses mainly regarding Serenoa repens and Pygeum Africanum as well as more recent studies on pumpkin seeds have shown clinical effects and good tolerability. To better judge the therapeutic potential of these plant extracts, additional randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials with sufficient follow-up are needed.

Treatment of experimental heterophyiasis with two plant extracts, areca nut and pumpkin seed.
Mahmoud LH, Basiouny SO, Dawoud HA.
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.
J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2002 Aug;32(2):501-6, 1 p following 506

The effect of water extracts of areca nut and pumpkin seeds in the treatment of puppies experimental infected with heterophyiasis gave promising results. Puppies were infected through feeding on the muscles of Mugil sp. fish containing the encysted metacercariae of H. heterophyes. Decoctions of pumpkin seeds and areca nut were administered orally 2 weeks after the start of infection as indicated by positive stool examinations. The effect was evaluated by stool examination for eggs, and by autopsy for worms in the intestines. A combined extracts of areca nut and pumpkin seeds gave an excellent result than when given either extract alone.

Evaluation of pumpkin seed products for bread fortification.
El-Soukkary FA.
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, El-Minia, Egypt.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2001;56(4):365-84

Pumpkin seed products (raw, roasted, autoclaved, germinated, fermented, pumpkin protein concentrate and pumpkin protein isolate) were incorporated into wheat flour to produce blends with protein levels of 15, 17, 19 and 21%. Dough properties were evaluated by a farinograph; loaves of breads were evaluated by a taste panel for crust color, crumb color, crumb texture, flavor, and overall quality. Results indicated that pumpkin seed products can be added to wheat flour up to a 17% protein level for raw, roasted and autoclaved pumpkin meal, 19% level for germinated, fermented and pumpkin protein concentrate and 21% level for pumpkin protein isolate without a detrimental effect on dough or loaf quality. On the other hand, the addition of pumpkin seed proteins resulted in increasing protein, lysine and mineral contents compared to the control. While lysine and tryptophan were the first and second limiting amino acids in the control bread, tryptophan and lysine were the first and second limiting amino acids for raw, roasted, autoclaved, germinated and fermented pumpkin meal; valine and lysine and valine and total sulfur amino acids were the first and second limiting amino acids for pumpkin protein concentrate and isolate, respectively. In vitro protein digestibility improved when the pumpkin seed proteins were added.

Effect of the extracts of pumpkin seeds on the urodynamics of rabbits: an experimental study.
Zhang X, Ouyang JZ, Zhang YS, Tayalla B, Zhou XC, Zhou SW.
Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical University, Wuhan.
J Tongji Med Univ 1994;14(4):235-8

Pumpkin seeds were prepared into oil n-butyle alcohol and ether extracts. The effects of the three extracts on the urodynamics of rabbits were observed. It was concluded that the oil preparation could remarkably reduce the bladder pressure, increase the bladder compliance, reduce the urethral pressure. Other two kinds of preparations had no effect in this experimental. The mechanisms of the effect of oil preparation on the urodynamics and the prospect of clinical use was discussed.

The effect of pumpkin seeds on oxalcrystalluria and urinary compositions of children in hyperendemic area.
Suphakarn VS, Yarnnon C, Ngunboonsri P.
Am J Clin Nutr 1987 Jan;45(1):115-21

We investigated the effect of pumpkin-seed supplementation on oxalcrystalluria and urinary composition in 20 boys age 2-7 yr from a hyperendemic area of Ubol province in Thailand. The experiment had four periods: control (before treatment), oxalate supplementation 5mg X kg-1 body wt X day-1, pumpkin-seed or orthophosphate supplementation 60 mg X kg body wt-1 X day-1, and posttreatment. Causal morning and 24-h urines were collected analyzed for crystalluria, pH, calcium, phosphorous, oxalate, creatinine, sodium, potassium, citrate glycosaminoglycans, and pyrophosphate. The results demonstrated that the longer the supplementation period of pumpkin seeds, the better were the results. Pumpkin seeds lowered calcium-oxalate crystal occurrence and calcium level but increased phosphorus, pyrophosphate, glycosaminoglycans, and potassium values in urine as compared with orthophosphate supplementation. Pumpkin seeds provide high phosphorus levels and can be used as a potential agent in lowering the risk of bladder-stone disease.

Treatment of Taenia saginata infection with mixture of areca nuts and pumpkin seeds.
Chung WC, Ko BC.
Zhonghua Min Guo Wei Sheng Wu Xue Za Zhi 1976 Jun;9(1-2):31-5

In January and February 1974, 32 adults (20 males and 12 females) and a 13-year-old girl with taeniasis saginata were treated with the mixture of boiled areca nuts and pumpkin seeds at Mastoban, Jen-ai District, Nantou County, Taiwan. A total of 48 worms including 42 scolices were recovered from 29 cases. Side-effects were observed in 4 cases including 3 with complaints of dizziness, tinnitus, nausea and vomiting, and one with coma and abdominal pain. Mixtures of 75-150 g areca nuts and 50-100 g pumpkin seeds were judged effective and safe.

Effects of dietary flax seed and sunflower seed supplementation on normal canine serum polyunsaturated fatty acids and skin and hair coat condition scores.
Rees CA, Bauer JE, Burkholder WJ, Kennis RA, Dunbar BL, Bigley KE.
Texas A & M University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Small Animal, Medicine and Surgery, College Station, TX 77843-4474, USA.
Vet Dermatol 2001 Apr;12(2):111-7

This prospective study involved supplementing 18 normal dogs with flax seed (FLX) and sunflower seed (SUN) and evaluating their effects on skin and hair coat condition scores and serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations. Skin and hair coat were evaluated in a double-blinded fashion using a numeric scoring system and serum PUFA concentrations were determined. Our hypothesis was that changes in serum PUFA concentrations are associated with improvements in skin and hair coat and that serum PUFA would provide an objective method for making dietary fatty acid supplement recommendations. Although a numerical improvement was found in hair coat quality in both groups, this improvement was not sustained beyond 28 days. The relative per cent of 18:3n-3 concentrations in serum phospholipids increased in the FLX treated dogs but these concentrations remained unchanged in the SUN treated dogs. Also, elevations in relative per cent of 18:2n-6 concentrations in serum phospholipids were seen in the FLX group. The ratio of serum polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids also showed a transient increase. These increases preceded the peak skin condition score peak value by approximately 14 days. It was concluded that a 1-month supplementation with either flax seed or sunflower seed in dogs provides temporary improvement in skin and hair coat. These changes appeared to be associated with increased serum 18 carbon PUFA.

Nutritional quality of sunflower seed protein fraction extracted with isopropanol.
Sen M, Bhattacharyya DK.
Department of Chemical Technology, University College of Science and Technology, Calcutta, India.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2000;55(3):265-78

This study investigated the nutritional effect of sunflower seed protein fraction (SSPF) extracted with isopropanol on growth, plasma and tissue lipid profile, protein content and erythrocyte membrane lipid profile of rats. Dehulled sunflower seeds were extracted with isopropanol at 50 +/- 1 degree C resulting in a protein fraction (71.5%) with low residual chlorogenic acid (0.07%) and fiber (3.3%) contents. Rats fed the sunflower seed protein fraction had a similar body weight gain and food efficiency ratios in comparison to those fed casein. Rats fed SSPF in contrast had a significantly higher growth and food efficiency ratio than the rats fed sunflower meal (SM), extracted with hexane. However, dietary proteins exerted a separate effect on plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio and triglyceride content. Sunflower seed protein fraction resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) levels compared to the casein fed rats. Membrane phospholipid profile also showed a marked variation with the type of dietary protein. Rats fed SSPF and SM did not show much variation in plasma lipids, plasma proteins, liver and brain lipids and membrane phospholipid concentrations. Protein content, liver and brain lipid profile of the groups fed SSPF and casein were comparable, suggesting that the nutritional value of SSPF is better than SM and equivalent to that of casein.

Nutritional evaluation of sunflower seed and products derived from them. Effect of oil extraction.
San Juan LD, Villamide MJ.
Departamento de Produccion Animal, Universidad Politecnica, Madrid, Spain.
Br Poult Sci 2000 May;41(2):182-92

1. Apparent MEn and oil digestibility of hulled sunflower seed (SFS) and the products derived from the oil extraction process: press extracted SFS (PESFS), sunflower seed meal (SFSM), and press and solvent oils (PO and SO) were determined with 198 cockerels. Recombined products (mix of meal and oil) were also evaluated to study the effect of the 2 consecutive oil extraction steps. Each foodstuff was included in a basal diet, according to the proportions resulting from processing, at 100, 200, and 300 g SFS/kg. 2. Dietary energy value and digestible fat content were linearly related to rate of inclusion of test ingredients. Extrapolation values for AMEn (MJ/kg DM) were: SFS, 16.20; PESFS, 9.46; SFSM, 7.62. A decreasing quadratic trend was also found in the AMEn of PESFS, with interpolation values ranging from 11.77 to 9.33 MJ/kg DM between 70 and 210 g/kg DM of inclusion. No differences were observed between PO and SO. The AMEn of of sunflower oil, calculated from its digestibility, was 33.70 MJ/kg DM. 3. The oil extraction process affected the nutritional value of sunflower products. Recombined materials showed greater values than original foodstuffs: R-SFS, 17.47; R-PESFS, 11.49 MJ/kg DM. The increase in oil digestibility (from 0.814 to 0.862 g/kg DM in SFS; from 0.778 to 0.892 in PESFS) accounted for most of the increase observed in AMEn values. 4. As the form in which oil is incorporated in diets (released or within SFS or PESFS) affects the utilisation of sunflower products, their nutritional value is less than maximal and should not be calculated from their ingredients. Solvent oil seems to be the less available fraction of sunflower oil within SFS as the effect of the 2nd extraction proved to be greater than that of the previous press extraction.

Phytosorbent prepared from sunflower seed husks prevents mercuric chloride accumulation in kidney and muscle of adult rabbits.
Lapina VA, Sheshko PM, Pankovets EA, Dontsov AE.
Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk.
Arch Environ Health 2000 Jan-Feb;55(1):48-50

In the present study, the effect of a melanin-containing phytosorbent, "Victoria," on mercury accumulation in rabbits' tissues was studied. This phytosorbent is derived from black sunflower seed husks. Domestic rabbits were administered either one single nontoxic low-level dose of mercuric chloride (i.e., 50 microg/1 kg body weight [control group]) or combinations of mercury and the phytosorbent "Victoria" (i.e., experimental group). Mercury and phytosorbent were administered per os daily for 12 d. Mercury in tissues was determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury in kidney and muscle of the experiment group was, on average, 25.8 and 4.7 times less, respectively, than in the control group. The authors concluded that the phytosorbent prevented accumulation of mercury in the kidney and muscle tissues and exerted a protective effect against mercury toxicity.

Hypersensitivity of cashew nut.
Li H, Zhang H.
Department of Allergy, PUP Allergy Diagnosis Centre, Peking.
Chin Med Sci J 1997 Sep;12(3):189-92

Cashew nut hypersensitivity can cause severe reactions even life threatening. In the past few years, there are more cases of cashew nut allergy than before in Beijing. Thirty patients with cashew nut allergy were analyzed in this paper. Case history, skin test, specific IgE and oral blinded challenge were used in the diagnosis.

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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