5.1 DRUGS THAT ARE HIGHLY RECOMMENDED (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program) 
Antitumor effect of vitamin B6 and its mechanisms.
Vitamin B(6)-mediated suppression of colon tumorigenesis, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis (review).
Availability of vitamin B6 from different food sources.
Vitamin b1 blocks damage caused by hyperglycemia.
Analgesic and analgesia-potentiating action of B vitamins.
Thiamine (Vitamin B1) protects against glucose- and insulin-mediated proliferation of human infragenicular arterial smooth muscle cells.
Biotin in metabolism and its relationship to human disease.
Short-term folate, vitamin B-12 or vitamin B-6 supplementation slightly affects memory performance but not mood in women of various ages.
Effect of vitamin B-6 supplementation on fuels, catecholamines, and amino acids during exercise in men.
Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort.
Low serum vitamin B 12 level and vitamin B 12 deficiency in the elderly. When should supplement be provided?
Long-term effects of vitamin B(12), folate, and vitamin B(6) supplements in elderly people with normal serum vitamin B(12) concentrations.
Vitamin deficiencies in rice-eating populations. Effects of B-vitamin supplements.
The association of vitamin b 12 and folate blood levels with mortality and cardiovascular morbidity incidence in the old old: the Bronx aging study.
Relations of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study.
Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and health.
B-vitamin intake, metabolic genes, and colorectal cancer risk (United States).


The B Vitamins are very important for the well functioning of the human body. There are 5 major types of them. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) is needed for the release of energy from carbohydrates, it aids the nervous system and helps maintain normal levels of stomach acidity and appetite; it can be derived from pork, catfish, soybeans and cow peas. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) is needed for the conversion of proteins, carbohydrates and fats into energy; it maintains healthy skin and eyes. It can be derived from liver, mackerel, catfish, yogurt and yeast. Vitamin B3 is needed also for the proper release of energy from food, for maintaining normal mental health and health of skin, mouth and digestive tract. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is needed for the metabolism of proteins; it helps to maintain fluid balance and is required for healthy red blood cells. It can be derived from seaweed, liver, meat and fish. In the end, Vitamin B12 is needed for the production of red blood cells and maintenance of protective sheath around nerves. It can be derived from oysters, salmon, mackerel, herring and seaweed.

Below you find a list of scientific abstracts on Vitamin B from pubmed.

Antitumor effect of vitamin B6 and its mechanisms.
Komatsu S, Yanaka N, Matsubara K, Kato N.
Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8528, Japan.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Apr 11;1647(1-2):127-30

Epidemiological studies have reported an inverse association between vitamin B(6) intake and colon cancer risk. Our recent study has been conducted to examine the effect of dietary vitamin B(6) on colon tumorigenesis in mice. Mice were fed diets containing 1, 7, 14 or 36 mg/kg pyridoxine for 22 weeks, and given a weekly injection of azoxymethane (AOM) for the initial 10 weeks. Compared with the 1 mg/kg pyridoxine diet, 7, 14 and 35 mg/kg pyridoxine diets significantly suppressed the incidence and number of colon tumors, colon cell proliferation and expressions of c-myc and c-fos proteins. Supplemental vitamin B(6) lowered the levels of colonic 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, oxidative stress markers) and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase protein. In an ex vivo serum-free matrix culture model using rat aortic ring, supplemental pyridoxine and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) had antiangiogenic effect. The results suggest that dietary vitamin B(6) suppresses colon tumorigenesis by reducing cell proliferation, oxidative stress, NO production and angiogenesis.

Vitamin B(6)-mediated suppression of colon tumorigenesis, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis (review).
Matsubara K, Komatsu S, Oka T, Kato N.
Faculty of Health and Welfare Science, Okayama Prefectual University, Okayama, Japan.
J Nutr Biochem. 2003 May;14(5):246-250

This review describes current research on the preventive effect of dietary vitamin B(6) against colon tumorigenesis and its possible mechanisms. Studies in cell culture have demonstrated that high levels of vitamin B(6) suppress growth of some cancer cells. From these studies it has been considered that supraphysiological doses of vitamin B(6) suppress tumor growth and metastasis. However, recent rodent study has indicated that azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis in mice is suppressed by moderate doses of dietary vitamin B(6.) Epidemiological studies also support an inverse relationship between vitamin B(6) intake and colon cancer risk. Potential mechanisms underlying the preventive effect of dietary vitamin B(6) have been suggested to include the suppression of cell proliferation, oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, and angiogenesis.

Availability of vitamin B6 from different food sources.
Roth-Maier DA, Kettler SI, Kirchgessner M.
Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Science Unit, Technical University of Munich-Weihenstephan, 85350 Freising, Germany.
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2002 Mar;53(2):171-9

The present study was conducted to investigate the precaecal digestibility of vitamin B6 from selected food sources including eggs, bananas, white cabbage, corn, milk powder, fish, barley, soybeans, brown rice, wheat bran, brewer's yeast, rye and soybean meal. These foods were chosen for their relevance in human and animal nutrition and prepared as they are usually eaten by humans. As confirmed by further investigations the precaecal digestibility is a valuable measure for determining the availability of native B-vitamins. Therefore, pigs were fitted with an end-to-end ileo-rectal anastomosis for digesta passing straight from ileum to rectum, thus avoiding endogenous vitamin synthesis by the colon. Three weeks after surgery the digestibility experiments were carried out during which the animals were fed various experimental diets for a period of 12 days and digesta were collected quantitatively twice a day during the final 5 days of this period. The concentration of vitamin B6 in foods and chyme was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography. Precaecal digestibility of vitamin B6 from all tested food sources ranged from 51 to 91% in the following order: cabbage diet > banana diet > fish diet > milk powder diet > brewer's yeast diet > soybeans diet > soybean meal diet > egg diet/corn diet > barley diet > wheat bran diet > rye diet. Only boiled brown rice had a very low vitamin B6 availability of 16%. The digestibility of vitamin B6 from plant products (excluding the rice) was on average 10% lower when compared with animal products (71 versus 79%).


Vitamin b1 blocks damage caused by hyperglycemia.
Obrenovich ME, Monnier VM.
the Department of Pathology at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.
Sci Aging Knowl Environ. 2003 Mar 12;2003(10):PE6

Diabetes accelerates the aging process and leads to complications that include blindness, renal failure, nerve damage, stroke, and cardiovascular disease. It has been hypothesized that high plasma glucose concentrations are responsible for increased mitochondrial free radical production and subsequent inactivation of glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in vascular endothelial cells and other cells implicated in these complications. As a result of the decreased ability of GAPDH to process upstream metabolites, three pathways of metabolic damage are activated, which include the advanced glycation end-product formation pathway, the protein kinase C pathway, and the hexosamine pathway. All three pathways have been implicated in abnormal cell signaling in diabetes. A group of German and U.S. scientists has now found that treating diabetic rats with high doses of benfotiamine, a lipid-soluble form of vitamin B1, can prevent diabetic retinopathy and all three forms of metabolic damage by stimulating transketolase activity and thus diverting excess metabolites toward the pentose pathway. Although vitamin B1 is available over the counter, the researchers at this time do not advocate self-treatment without further clinical data.

Analgesic and analgesia-potentiating action of B vitamins.
Jurna I.
Medizinische Fakultat der Universitat des Saarlandes.
Schmerz. 1998 Apr 20;12(2):136-41

Disregarding pain resulting from vitamin deficiency, an analgesic effect seems to be exerted only by vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B6 (pyridoxines), and vitamin B12 (cobalamine), particularly when the three are given in combination. The analgesic effect is attributed to an increased availability and/or effectiveness of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine acting as inhibitory transmitters in the nociceptive system.In animal experiments, high doses of these vitamins administered alone or in combination inhibited nociceptive behavior and depressed the nociceptive activity evoked in single neurons of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and in the thalamus. Moreover, they were found to enhance the antinociceptive effect of non-opioid analgesic agents on withdrawal reflexes.Clinical data fail in most cases to meet current standards of evaluation (randomization, double-blindness). Still, it appears that high doses of the vitamins B1, B6, and B12 administered separately or in combination can alleviate acute pain and potentiate the analgesia caused by non-opioid analgesics such as the NSAIDs and metamizol (dipyrone). Therapeutic effects are observed in neuropathic pain and pain of musculoskeletal origin. Vitamin B6 is effective in the carpal tunnel syndrome which, however, is attributed at least in some cases to vitamin B6 deficiency. It is also worth noting that the B vitamins are shown to enhance the beneficial effect of diclofenac in acute low-back pain so that ither the duration of treatment or the daily dose of diclofenac may be reduced. The use of high doses of vitamin B6 may be limited by a neurotoxic effect. The effectiveness of B vitamins in depressing chronic pain has not been established. It would be interesting to know if the B vitamins are of use as adjuvants in the treatment of tumor pain.

Thiamine (Vitamin B1) protects against glucose- and insulin-mediated proliferation of human infragenicular arterial smooth muscle cells.
Avena R, Arora S, Carmody BJ, Cosby K, Sidawy AN.
Department of Surgery, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, George Washington and Georgetown University Medical Centers, Washington, DC, USA.
Ann Vasc Surg. 2000 Jan;14(1):37-43

Accelerated proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMC) plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, which preferentially affects the infragenicular vasculature in patients with diabetes mellitus. High insulin and glucose levels, which are present in patients with type II diabetes, have an additive effect in infragenicular ASMC proliferation in vitro. Thiamine is a coenzyme important in intracellular glucose metabolism. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of thiamine on human infragenicular ASMC proliferation induced by high glucose and insulin levels in vitro. Human infragenicular ASMC isolated from diabetic patients undergoing lower extremity amputation were used. Cells were cultured at 37 degrees C in 5% CO(2). Cells were identified as ASMC by immunohistochemical analysis. Cells from passages 3-5 were exposed to glucose concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2% with and without insulin concentrations of 100 ng/mL and 1000 ng/mL, in the presence or absence of 200 microM of thiamine. Standard hemocytometry and (3)H-thymidine incorporation quantified cell proliferation after incubation for 6 days and 24 hr, respectively. The data suggest that thiamine inhibits human infragenicular ASMC proliferation induced by high glucose and insulin. Vitamin B1 intake may prove important in delaying the atherosclerotic complications of diabetes.

Biotin in metabolism and its relationship to human disease.
Pacheco-Alvarez D, Solorzano-Vargas RS, Del Rio AL.
Departamento de Biologia Molecular y Biotecnologia, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas (IIBM), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico.
Arch Med Res. 2002 Sep-Oct;33(5):439-47

Biotin, a water-soluble vitamin, is used as cofactor of enzymes involved in carboxylation reactions. In humans, there are five biotin-dependent carboxylases: propionyl-CoA carboxylase; methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase; pyruvate carboxylase, and two forms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. These enzymes catalyze key reactions in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid metabolism, and amino acid catabolism; thus, biotin plays an essential role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. In recent years, biotin has been associated with several diseases in humans. Some are related to enzyme deficiencies involved in biotin metabolism. However, not all biotin-responsive disorders can be explained based on the classical role of the vitamin in cell metabolism. Several groups have suggested that biotin may be involved in regulating transcription or protein expression of different proteins. Biotinylation of histones and triggering of transduction signaling cascades have been suggested as underlying mechanisms behind these non-classical biotin-deficiency manifestation in humans.

Short-term folate, vitamin B-12 or vitamin B-6 supplementation slightly affects memory performance but not mood in women of various ages.
Bryan J, Calvaresi E, Hughes D.
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Health Sciences and Nutrition, Kintore Avenue, Adelaide, 5000 Australia.
J Nutr. 2002 Jun;132(6):1345-56

Based on research demonstrating associations between folate, B-12 and B-6 vitamins and cognition and mood, we investigated the effects of short-term supplementation in 211 healthy younger, middle-aged and older women who took either 750 microg of folate, 15 microg of vitamin B-12, 75 mg of vitamin B-6 or a placebo daily for 35 d. In addition, we examined associations between dietary intake of these vitamins and cognition and mood. Usual dietary intake status was estimated using a retrospective, self-report, quantified food frequency questionnaire. Participants completed alternate forms of standardized tests of cognitive processing resources, memory, executive function, verbal ability and self-report mood measures before and after supplementation. Supplementation had a significant positive effect on some measures of memory performance only, and no effect on mood. Dietary intake status was associated with speed of processing, recall and recognition and verbal ability.

Effect of vitamin B-6 supplementation on fuels, catecholamines, and amino acids during exercise in men.
Virk RS, Dunton NJ, Young JC, Leklem JE.
Department of Nutrition and Food Management, Oregon State University, Corvallis 97331, USA.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Mar;31(3):400-8

PURPOSE: In two separate but identical studies, the effect of vitamin B-6 supplementation was examined on plasma energy substrates, catecholamines, and 13 amino acid concentrations during exercise. METHODS: Eleven trained men performed two separate exhaustive exercise tests at 71.0+/-4.6% VO2max during two separate 9-d controlled diet periods. Exercise test 1 (T1C) occurred following a control diet, and test 2 (T2B6) occurred following a vitamin B-6 supplemented diet (20 mg PN.d(-1)). Blood was drawn pre, during (60 min), post, and post-60 min of exercise, and plasma was analyzed for glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids (FFA), catecholamines (N = 5), and amino acids (N = 5). RESULTS: Mean FFA concentrations changed over time in both tests (P < 0.001) and were lower in T2B6 compared to T1C at pre (P = 0.03), during (P = 0.05), and post-60 min (P = 0.04) of exercise. Mean lactate, glycerol, and catecholamine concentrations only changed over time (P < 0.0001). The only significant changes in amino acid concentrations were for lower tyrosine (P = 0.007) and methionine (P = 0.03) concentrations in T2B6 relative to TIC at post-60 min of exercise and postexercise, respectively. No differences were observed in exercise times to exhaustion between TIC (108+32.6 min) and T2B6 (109+51.2 min). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that vitamin B-6 supplementation can alter plasma FFA and amino acid concentrations during exhaustive endurance exercise without affecting endurance.

Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort.
Deijen JB, van der Beek EJ, Orlebeke JF, van den Berg H.
Department of Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992;109(4):489-96

This study evaluates the effects of vitamin B-6 supplementation (20 mg pyridoxine HCL daily for 3 months) on mood and performance in 38 self-supporting healthy men, aged between 70-79 years. Effects were compared with 38 controls who received placebo and were matched for age, plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) concentration and intelligence score. Before and after drug intervention vitamin B-6 status was determined, and mood and performance were measured by means of a computerized testing system. In addition, the phasic pupil response was measured in order to assess mental effort. Positive effects of vitamin B-6 supplementation were only found with respect to memory, especially concerning long-term memory. In view of the finding that mental performance improvement and delta PLP values were most strongly correlated within an intermediate range of delta PLP, it is suggested that cognitive effects are primarily associated with a certain range of vitamin B-6 status increment. The general conclusion is that vitamin B-6 supplementation improves storage of information modestly but significantly.

Low serum vitamin B 12 level and vitamin B 12 deficiency in the elderly. When should supplement be provided?
de Rooij S, van Bruggen R, Thijssen C, Hooijer C.
Afd. Geriatrie, Slotervaartziekenhuis, Amsterdam.
Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr. 1994 Mar;25(1):3-10

Low serum vitamin B12 levels and vitamin B12 deficiencies are frequently found in the elderly. The full syndrome of a vitamin B12 deficiency is rather simple to diagnose. The large applicability of the vitamin B12 assay also gives rise to many probably incomplete features. Low/low-normal vitamin B12 levels in screening procedures raise uncertainty whether this finding represents deficiency and should be followed by supplementation. In this paper the occurrence of low serum levels of vitamin B12 are discussed. To assess the clinical relevance of low/low-normal outcomes supplementary diagnostic procedures will be needed. Within this scope we illustrate the d.o.s.-test and the MMA-assay. Especially the latter will probably provide more answers to the treatment question. Systematic research is needed to clarify this issue. Meanwhile supplementation of all low and low-normal outcomes of the B12-assay seems the best answer.

Long-term effects of vitamin B(12), folate, and vitamin B(6) supplements in elderly people with normal serum vitamin B(12) concentrations.
Henning BF, Tepel M, Riezler R, Naurath HJ.
Department of Internal Medicine I, Marienhospital, University of Bochum, Germany.
Gerontology. 2001 Jan-Feb;47(1):30-5

BACKGROUND: In the elderly, deficiencies of folate, cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) and pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B(6)) are common. The metabolites homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, 2-methylcitric acid and cystathionine have been reported to be sensitive markers of these vitamin deficiencies. OBJECTIVE: The long-term (269 days) effect of an intramuscular vitamin supplement containing 1 mg vitamin B(12), 1.1 mg folate, and 5 mg vitamin B(6) on serum concentrations of homocysteine (tHcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA), 2-methylcitric acid (2-MCA), and cystathionine (Cysta) was studied in 49 elderly subjects with normal levels of vitamin B(12). METHODS: Vitamin supplement was administered 8 times over a 21-day period, metabolite concentrations were measured until day 269 (e.g. 248 days after the end of vitamin supplementation). RESULTS: From day 0 to 21, the serum levels of the 3 vitamins increased significantly, after cessation of supplementation the levels returned to baseline within the follow-up period. The MMA, 2-MCA and tHcy levels decreased during the treatment period significantly and did not reach baseline values within the 248-day period. Cysta levels did not differ significantly from baseline, either during or after treatment. CONCLUSION: MMA and 2-MCA levels rather reflect the availability of vitamins, especially cobalamin, than the actual serum levels. Since deficiencies of folate, cobalamin and pyridoxal phosphate in the elderly may cause hyerhomocysteinemia and hence may have unfavorable effects on mental performance, determination of MMA and 2-MCA levels in elderly patients with mental disturbances may be a cost-effective measure to improve or maintain mental performance.

Vitamin deficiencies in rice-eating populations. Effects of B-vitamin supplements.
Bamji MS.
Experientia Suppl. 1983;44:245-63

Rice is the staple food in many countries of Asia. Recent nutrition surveys in eight states, conducted by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau of India, show that though the average energy intake is adequate, more than 50% of the households surveyed consumed less than the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of energy. These households generally had per capita incomes of less than Rupees 2/- (US+ 0.25) per day. The average intake of vitamin A was only 42% of the RDA and that of riboflavin, 70% of the RDA. The average intake of other nutrients such as thiamin, niacin, ascorbic acid, iron and calcium was adequate, although thiamin deficiency was present in populations where rice was the main cereal, but not in populations where rice was the main cereal, but not in populations that consumed mixed cereal or cereal-millet diets. The magnitude of the riboflavin deficiency (after correction or energy) was also more marked in the former. Vitamin A intake was not related to the type of cereal, but had some relationship to the quantity of vegetables consumed. Nutrition surveys from Japan also reveal deficiencies in intake of energy, vitamin A, thiamin and riboflavin. The Japanese diet tends to be deficient by 20% in vitamin A and riboflavin, but not thiamin. Thus, vitamin A, riboflavin and energy (in that order) are the major nutritional constraints in rice-eating populations. Clear-cut correlations between the magnitude of dietary deficiency and the prevalence of signs and symptoms of vitamin deficiency were not apparent in the comparisons between populations, suggesting that as well as dietary deficiency other environmental factors play a role in the development of clinical deficiency. Attempts to correlate clinical deficiency with the magnitude of biochemical deficiency have also failed. Recent studies aimed at examining the effects of food supplements (rural Gambian women) or vitamin supplements (rural Indian boys) on vitamin status suggest that in some communities, vitamin intakes close to the RDA fail to saturate the tissues, as judged by biochemical tests. In the Indian boys, there was a marked rise in urinary excretion of riboflavin during winter when the incidence of respiratory infections was high. Metabolic losses of vitamins due to infections may preclude tissue saturation despite adequate dietary intake. Administration for 1 year of B-vitamins at levels close to the RDA failed to reduce the prevalence of clinical deficiency signs, but did produce some improvement in hand steadiness - a psychomotor test.

The association of vitamin b 12 and folate blood levels with mortality and cardiovascular morbidity incidence in the old old: the Bronx aging study.
Zeitlin A, Frishman WH, Chang CJ.
Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA.
Am J Ther. 1997 Jul-Aug;4(7-8):275-81

OBJECTIVE: An elevated homocysteine level in the blood has been identified as an independent risk factor for vascular disease, including coronary atherosclerosis and venoembolic disease. A deficiency of vitamins B ( 6 ), B ( 12 ), or folate in the blood can cause increased blood levels of homocysteine. We set out to determine whether there was a relationship between blood levels of folate and B ( 12 ) and the subsequent development of cardiovascular disease and mortality in old old ambulatory men and women. DESIGN: Four hundred forty subjects (mean age, 79 years; 64% female) were followed in the Bronx Longitudinal Aging Study, a prospective study of 10 years duration, designed to assess risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and dementia in an ambulatory old old cohort. METHODS: Serum levels of vitamin B ( 12 ) and folate were measured and related to the incidence of total all-cause mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: No statistical gender- or age-related differences were found in the mean levels of folate or B ( 12 ). The concentration of folate in the blood was not related to the incidence of mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, or overall cardiovascular disease. However, by logistical regression and Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses, there was an increased incidence of mortality and coronary heart disease in those subjects having increased vitamin B ( 12 ) levels in the blood. Each 100-pg increase in B ( 12 ) was associated with a 10% increase in mortality and coronary heart disease incidence. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that in elderly subjects, vitamin B ( 12 ) supplementation should not be routinely provided unless there are clear indications for doing so (a deficiency state), and then only to replace enough B ( 12 ) to correct the deficiency. A suggested treatment paradigm is provided for managing vitamin deficiency states and hyperhomocysteinemia in elderly subjects.

Relations of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study.
Riggs KM, Spiro A 3rd, Tucker K, Rush D.
Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1996 Mar;63(3):306-14

We investigated the relations between plasma concentrations of homocysteine and vitamins B-12 and B-6 and folate, and scores from a battery of cognitive tests for 70 male subjects, aged 54-81 y, in the Normative Aging Study. Lower concentrations of vitamin B-12 (P=0.04) and folate (P=0.003) and higher concentrations of homocysteine (P=0.0009 ) were associated with poorer spatial copying skills. Plasma homocysteine was a stronger predictor of spatial copying performance than either vitamin B-12 or folate. The association of homocysteine with spatial copying performance was not explained by clinical diagnoses of vascular disease. Higher concentrations of vitamin B-6 were related to better performance on two measures of memory (P=0.03 and P=0.05). The results suggest that vitamins (and homocysteine) may have differential effects on cognitive abilities. Individual vitamins and homocysteine should be explored further as determinants of patterns of cognitive impairment.

Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and health.
Powers HJ.
Centre for Human Nutrition, The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;77(6):1352-60

Riboflavin is unique among the water-soluble vitamins in that milk and dairy products make the greatest contribution to its intake in Western diets. Meat and fish are also good sources of riboflavin, and certain fruit and vegetables, especially dark-green vegetables, contain reasonably high concentrations. Biochemical signs of depletion arise within only a few days of dietary deprivation. Poor riboflavin status in Western countries seems to be of most concern for the elderly and adolescents, despite the diversity of riboflavin-rich foods available. However, discrepancies between dietary intake data and biochemical data suggest either that requirements are higher than hitherto thought or that biochemical thresholds for deficiency are inappropriate. This article reviews current evidence that diets low in riboflavin present specific health risks. There is reasonably good evidence that poor riboflavin status interferes with iron handling and contributes to the etiology of anemia when iron intakes are low. Various mechanisms for this have been proposed, including effects on the gastrointestinal tract that might compromise the handling of other nutrients. Riboflavin deficiency has been implicated as a risk factor for cancer, although this has not been satisfactorily established in humans. Current interest is focused on the role that riboflavin plays in determining circulating concentrations of homocysteine, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Other mechanisms have been proposed for a protective role of riboflavin in ischemia reperfusion injury; this requires further study. Riboflavin deficiency may exert some of its effects by reducing the metabolism of other B vitamins, notably folate and vitamin B-6.

B-vitamin intake, metabolic genes, and colorectal cancer risk (United States).
Le Marchand L, Donlon T, Hankin JH, Kolonel LN, Wilkens LR, Seifried A.
Etiology Program, Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu 96813, USA.
Cancer Causes Control. 2002 Apr;13(3):239-48

OBJECTIVE: This population-based case-control study was designed to investigate the interrelationships between polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) gene and other genes (MTR A2756G; MTRR A66G and CBS 844ins68), intake of B-vitamins and colorectal cancer risk (CRC). METHODS: We interviewed 727 CRC cases of Japanese, Caucasian, or Native Hawaiian origin and 727 controls matched on sex, age, and ethnicity. RESULTS: Compared to the homozygous wild-type genotype, the odds ratios for subjects with one or two MTHFR 677T variant alleles were 0.8 (0.6-1.1) and 0.7 (0.5-1.1), respectively (p for gene-dosage effect: 0.04). The TT genotype was associated with a 50-60% decrease in CRC risk among subjects with high intake of folate or vitamin B6, compared to those with the CC genotype and low levels of intake. The MTHFR 1298C and CBS8 44ins68 variant alleles were also found to be weakly protective against CRC and to act jointly with the 677T allele. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides additional evidence for a decreased CRC risk for subjects with the MTHFR 677T allele, particularly at high levels of folate and vitamin B6 intake. Our data also suggest that the relationships between CRC and the MTHFR A1298C and CBS 844ins68 polymorphisms warrant further study.

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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