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ANTI-AGING DRUGS AND SUPPLEMENTS

 
 5.3 DRUGS FOR TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF SPECIFIC DISEASES OF AGING 
   
 
  CANCER  
   
  Research articles on Anti-cancer drugs:
New treatment approaches for lung cancer and impact on survival.
Current application of selective COX-2 inhibitors in cancer prevention and treatment.
 
 
  TAMOXIFEN (brand names: Tamoxifen Citrate, Nolvadex)  
   


Tamoxifen, an anticancer drug, is given to treat breast cancer. It also has proved effective when cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Tamoxifen is most effective in stopping the kind of breast cancer that thrives on estrogen. Tamoxifen blocks the actions of estrogen in a woman's body. Certain types of breast cancer require estrogen to grow. Tamoxifen is also prescribed to reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer following surgery and radiation therapy for ductal carcinoma in situ. The drug can also be used to reduce the odds of breast cancer in women at high risk of developing the disease. It does not completely eliminate your chances, but in a five-year study of over 1,500 high-risk women, it slashed the number of cases by 44 percent.

Tamoxifen is a medicine that blocks the effects of the estrogen hormone in the body. It is used to treat breast cancer in women or men.

It may also be used to treat other kinds of cancer, as determined by your doctor. Tamoxifen also may be used to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer in women who have a high risk of developing breast cancer.

You can find an extensive list of recent scientific research abstracts about TAMOXIFEN here

 
  Celebrex (generic name: Celecoxib)  
   


Celebrex relieves the pain and inflammation of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It is the first of a new class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) called "COX-2 inhibitors." Like older NSAIDs such as Motrin and Naprosyn, Celebrex is believed to fight pain and inflammation by inhibiting the effect of a natural enzyme called COX-2. Unlike the older medications, however, it does not interfere with a similar substance, called COX-1, which exerts a protective effect on the lining of the stomach. Celebrex is therefore less likely to cause the bleeding and ulcers that sometimes accompany sustained use of the older NSAIDs. Celebrex has also been found to reduce the number of colorectal polyps (growths in the wall of the lower intestine and rectum) in people who suffer from the condition called familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an inherited tendency to develop large numbers of colorectal polyps that eventually become cancerous.

You can find an extensive list of recent scientific research abstracts about Celebrex here

   
  Fareston (toremifene)  
   


Toremifene citrate belongs to the general group of drugs known as anti-hormones. It is used to treat advanced breast cancer, and may be used with other medicines to treat other cancers.
Toremifene citrate blocks estrogen. The cancer cells which depend on estrogen to divide, stop growing and die.


You can find an extensive list of recent scientific research abstracts about Fareston here

 
   
   


Semin Oncol. 2002 Jun;29(3 Suppl 8):26-9
New treatment approaches for lung cancer and impact on survival.
Cortes-Funes H.
Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario, Madrid, Spain.

Lung cancer is an aggressive disease that is the leading cause of death from cancer in both males and females. Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for approximately 75% of all cases of lung cancer, and of these about 75% have locally advanced or disseminated disease. Most patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer do not survive more than 2 years. Although chemotherapy has been shown to control symptoms and improve quality of life, there remains no standard, optimal chemotherapy regimen for non-small cell lung cancer. Regardless of regimen and chemotherapy agents administered, clinical trials have demonstrated response rates of 20% to 30%, median survival times between 35 and 40 weeks, and 1-year survival rates of 20% to 25%. Because traditional chemotherapy regimens have not shown substantial promise, new strategies are being explored for the treatment of lung cancer, including overcoming drug resistance, the use of antimetastatic and antiangiogenesis drugs, drugs that target novel molecular markers, signal transduction modulators, gene therapy, and vaccines. There are few but exciting new developments that may signal a more promising future for patients with lung cancer.

   
   

Oncology (Huntingt) 2002 May;16(5 Suppl 4):37-51
Current application of selective COX-2 inhibitors in cancer prevention and treatment.
Stratton MS, Alberts DS .
Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson 85719, USA.

The multistep process of carcinogenesis, which can take many years, provides many opportunities for intervention to inhibit disease progression. Effective chemoprevention agents may reduce the risk of cancer by inhibiting the initiation stage of carcinoma through induction of apoptosis or DNA repair in cells harboring mutations, or they may act to prevent promotion of tumor growth. Similarly, chemoprevention may entail blocking cancer progression to an invasive phenotype. Over the past decade, in vitro, preclinical, and clinical data have supported the hypothesis that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 plays a central role in oncogenesis and that treatment with COX-2 inhibitors offers an effective chemoprevention strategy, as exemplified by the activity of Celecoxib (Celebrex) in familial adenomatous polyposis. These COX-2 data have contributed to initiation of clinical trials testing COX-2 inhibitors for the chemoprevention of a wide variety of cancers that overexpress COX-2.

 

 

Prescribing drugs to prevent cancer

A number of established prescription drugs are being tested to see if they have useful anti-cancer effects. Some groups of people might consider taking such "chemopreventive" drugs for prophylactic purposes, even if they are not ill. Some drugs have produced promising results; but they do all have side-effects. The concept of "chemoprevention" is best known in the case of preventing heart disease, for example drugs used to lower blood-cholesterol levels or to lower hypertension.

Up to now, the emphasis in cancer research has been on curing the condition. While these efforts continue, an increasing number of researchers are searching for drugs or other supplements that will prevent or delay the onset of cancer in the first place. Because of the side-effects, this is not recommended for everybody; but two developments now make the preventive approach using drugs more attractive. It is now recognised that many cancers start out years earlier as pre-malignant lesions, which in principle may be diagnosed. Second, there is growing evidence of a genetic link to many types of cancer, and this again enables at-risk groups of people to be identified.

More than 50 clinical trials are underway, testing various compounds and drugs for anti-cancer action. A study published early in 2003 demonstrated that low doses of aspirin can prevent development of pre-cancerous polyps in persons with a family history of colon cancer. A large study is currently underway which is testing whether selenium and vitamin E supplementation can prevent prostate cancer.

Another investigation is testing the anti-inflammatory drug Celebrex, used originally to treat arthritis. This has already been shown to reduce pre-cancerous polyps in patients with a rare genetic syndrome that causes colon cancer. Now studies are evaluating whether it will also help protect against the formation of such polyps in average individuals.

But the use of chemopreventive drugs is controversial. This is partly because it is harder to pinpoint who would most benefit from the treatment -- and thus weigh against the potential risks. In the case of treating known disease, this decision is much clearer. Thus cancer prevention has usually focused on diet and lifestyle changes, rather than using drugs. But for some people, particularly those with an unfavorable genetic predisposition, such changes may not be enough.

However, it should be pointed out that some previous chemoprevention trials have produced unexpected negative or confusing results. Some years ago the vitamin-A precursor Beta-carotene seemed promising as a treatment to reduce the risk of lung cancer. But trials on heavy smokers showed that those taking this supplement actually got cancer at a higher rate than the control group. Another not totally encouraging example is the use of Finsteride to prevent prostate cancer. In the trial, this drug clearly did reduce the risk of getting prostate cancer. But the reported side-effects included decreases in libido and potency, and, more worryingly, those who did get cancer appeared to have a higher risk of getting it in more severe form. More research is needed to understand this effect.

A landmark study by the American Association for Cancer Research, published in 2002, concludes that many cancers start as pre-malignant lesions, that over time develop into cancer. Many specialists argue that by treating these lesions with drugs, the process by which they become cancerous can be halted or at least delayed. Finding these lesions is not so simple as measuring high blood-cholesterol or hypertension; but screening techniques are constantly advancing, and an aging population is becoming more accustomed to regular health-screening tests. Treating "pre-cancer" will probably be an increasing focus of cancer-prevention efforts.

 
   
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FASTING / LOW CALORIE PROGRAMS
on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
     
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
     
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
 
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
        Obesity
Diabetes
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Allergies
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
Infertility
Presbyacusis
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Radio-sensitivity
Apoptosis
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science
     

Vegetables
Fruits
Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Fish
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Legumes
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Mushrooms
Nuts and seeds
Alcohol
Coffee
Water
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Selenium
Flavonoids, carotenes
DHEA
Vitamin B
Carnitin
SAM
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
HGH
Gerovital
Melatonin
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Arthritis
Cancer
Depression
Diabetes
Hyperlipidemia
Hypertension
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Menopause
Muscle weakness
Osteoporosis
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
 
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Arthritis
Cancer
Depression
Diabetes
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Hyperlipidemia
Hypertension
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Osteoporosis
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
        Blood
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Brain
Heart & heart devices
Kidney
Liver
Lung
Pancreas
Spleen
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Stretching
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
 
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
     
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years


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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview
         
       

       
     
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