Research articles on Nootropic and smart drug:
The development of new drugs for acute stroke.
Amphetamines and related drugs in motor recovery after stroke.
Double-blind comparison of Amlodipine and nifedipine retard in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension.
Middle term evaluation of Amlodipine vs nitrendipine: efficacy, safety and metabolic effects in elderly hypertensive patients.
  VINPOCETINE (generic name: Cavinton)  

Vinpocetine (Cavinton) - is a preventive anti-stroke drug. It also enhance brain blood circulation, improves memory and hearing (tinnitus). Arteriosclerosis development in brain is retarding. Vinpocetine improves blood flow to the brain, makes it easier for the brain to use glucose and oxygen, and allows the brain to survive longer and better after periods of oxygen deprivation. Several brain boosters (ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, phosphatidylserine, to name just a few) are known to help restore failing memory, but Vinpocetine dramatically enhances memory in even healthy individuals. It also acts as a potent neuroprotective supplement.

Clinical evidence exists that, in addition to its brain boosting properties, Vinpocetineís ability to improve blood flow also helps protect brain and heart function; prevent macular degeneration, (a leading cause of blindness in the elderly); improve hearing and inner ear problems; and even lessen depression and fatigue.

You can find an extensive list of recent scientific research abstracts about VINPOCETINE here


Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2000 Dec;116(6):379-84
The development of new drugs for acute stroke.
Suzuki Y, Umemura K.
Department of Pharmacology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 3600 Handa-cho, Hamamatsu 431-3192, Japan.

Stroke represents the third common cause of death and hospitalization. However, there are yet no drugs that have reliable effects on acute stroke in Japan. Therefore, the development of new drugs that can support patients is required. There are various candidate drugs for acute stroke such as antithrombotic agents, anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents, neuroprotectants, and so on. Recently clinical trials suggest that aspirin may improve outcome, although these studies demonstrated a modest benefit of aspirin. Abciximab (ReoPro) is a human/mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the platelet receptor glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. It appears to be safe and might improve functional outcome. The large randomized trails were started to test the hypothesis that thrombolysis by an intravenous administration of a recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator (rtPA) could restore cerebral blood flow and improve patient outcome in acute ischemic stroke. These results can support the use of intravenous rtPA for stroke treatment within 3 h after onset, but not beyond 3 h. Development of an effective neuroprotective agent for the treatment of acute stroke remains problematic. Antioxidants, MCI-186 and ebselen, have finished phase III of clinical trials in Japan and were effective. We hope that efficacious drugs for acute stroke can be used for patients.


Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2003 Feb;14(1 Suppl):S125-34, x
Amphetamines and related drugs in motor recovery after stroke.
Goldstein LB.
Center for Cerebrovascular Disease, Department of Medicine (Neurology), Center for Clinical Health Policy Research, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

Studies in laboratory animals indicate that the rate and extent of functional recovery after focal brain injury can be modulated by drugs affecting specific central neurotransmitters. Preliminary clinical studies suggest that similar drug effects may occur in humans recovering from stroke. Combined with principles derived from the laboratory, these clinical studies provide important insights to guide the rational design of trials aimed at determining the clinical use of this approach to improving poststroke recovery.



J Hum Hypertens 1994 Jan;8(1):65-8
Double-blind comparison of Amlodipine and nifedipine retard in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension.
Lorimer AR, Anderson JA, Laher MS, Davies J, Lazarus JH, Taylor SH, Sanghera S.
Department of Medical Cardiology, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK.

The efficacy and safety profiles of Amlodipine (5-10 mg once daily) and nifedipine retard (20-40 mg twice daily) were compared in 111 hypertensive patients (sitting DBP in 95-115 mmHg) during eight weeks of treatment in a randomised double-blind parallel group study. BP was measured 22-24 hours after the daily dose of Amlodipine and 10-12 hours after a dose of nifedipine retard. Baseline sitting BPs of 175/105 mmHg and 168/104 mmHg were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) to 157/93 mmHg and 151/92 mmHg at the end of treatment in response to mean daily doses of Amlodipine 7.3 mg and nifedipine retard 58.9 mg. There were no clinically significant changes in heart rate with either treatment. Three patients in the Amlodipine group and five patients in the nifedipine retard group could not be considered in analysis. The total numbers of adverse events (considered related or possibly related to treatment) (42 vs. 36) as well as the numbers of patients experiencing such events (22 vs. 22) were similar in the Amlodipine and nifedipine retard treated groups, respectively, but with a greater incidence of headaches in response to nifedipine retard and of oedema in response to Amlodipine. Five patients in each treatment group discontinued therapy due to such events. Overall the results showed once daily Amlodipine as equivalent to twice daily nifedipine retard in the management of mild to moderate hypertension.



Clin Exp Hypertens 1993;15 Suppl 1:197-210
Middle term evaluation of Amlodipine vs nitrendipine: efficacy, safety and metabolic effects in elderly hypertensive patients.
Grandinetti O, Feraco E.
Department of Cardiology, I.N.R.C.A.-Institute for Geriatric Cardiovascular Diseases, Cosenza, Italy.

The aim of the study was to evaluate, in a population of elderly hypertensives, the efficacy for 24 hours, the safety and the effects on carbohydrates and lipids metabolism of Amlodipine (A) and nitrendipine (N). After a 3-week placebo wash-out, 50 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension (HBP) or isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), were randomized in 4 groups treated with once-daily A 5,10mg or N 10,20mg increasing until patients responded to treatment. All subjects were submitted to a 24-hour non invasive ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) at the start of the study (t0) and after four weeks of therapy (t4). It was registered a mean daily reduction in the pressure load of 15.0% in group A, 14.1% in group B, 13.9% in group C and 15.6% in group D; (p < 0.001). 82% of the patients treated with A and 85% treated with N resulted "responder". The metabolic parameters considered showed no significant changes. The overall incidence of adverse effects were temporary and extremely limited (2%). As monotherapies, Amlodipine and nitrendipine are both suitable for the management of mild to moderate hypertension in elderly.


on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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