Development and validation of a test for early diagnosis of dementia with differentiation from depression (TFDD).
Differential diagnosis of the major progressive dementias and depression in middle and late adulthood: a summary of the literature of the early 1990s.
Problems in differential diagnosis between early presenile dementia and depression in elderly persons.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in Alzheimer's Disease. A Practical Update for the Clinician.
Complexity in late-life depression: impact of confounding factors on diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2000 Sep;68(9):413-22.
Development and validation of a test for early diagnosis of dementia with differentiation from depression (TFDD)
Ihl R, Grass-Kapanke B, Lahrem P, Brinkmeyer J, Fischer S, Gaab N, Kaupmannsennecke C.
Rheinische Kliniken, Heinrich-Heine-Universitat.

Psychometric tests used for the early detection of dementia often are seen as too difficult or too complex. Classical neuropsychologic tests were not developed for this purpose. Sensitivity and specificity to discriminate "healthy" vs. "ill" are low. For measuring both dementive and depressive symptoms, so far no test has been published. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific test for dementia that is easy to administer and to evaluate. Moreover, it should discriminate dementia from depressive pseudodementia. With respect to former studies, items were selected that recognized patients in the beginning of the disease. Additionally, depressive symptoms were rated. With the items for dementia, 88 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type, 52 patients with depressive disorder and 37 healthy elderly controls were investigated. In this group of already diagnosed patients, the test reached a sensitivity and specificity of 100 percent (healthy elderly controls vs. patients with Alzheimer's disease: n = 125, U = 0, p < 0.001; patients with depressive disorder vs. patients with Alzheimer's disease: n = 140, U = 0, p < 0.001; healthy elderly controls vs. patients with depressive disorder: n = 89, U = 485.5, p < 0.001). For the dementia items, the inter-rater-reliability was rs = 0.996 (p < 0.001, n = 18), for the depression items it was rs = 0.753 (n = 18, p < 0.001). The test-retest-reliability was rs = 0.868 (p < 0.001, n = 35) for the dementia items and rs = 0.7 (n = 8, p < 0.05) for the depression items. These validation data will make the test useful for practitioners. Its ability to discriminate patients suffering from dementia of the Alzheimer type from healthy controls is comparable to tests consuming more time.


Neuropsychol Rev. 1998 Sep;8(3):109-67.
Differential diagnosis of the major progressive dementias and depression in middle and late adulthood: a summary of the literature of the early 1990s.
Rosenstein LD.
Department of Psychiatry, Scott & White Clinic and Memorial Hospital, Temple, Texas 76508, USA.

There is a preponderance of research on the neuropsychology of the various dementias. There are also direct comparisons between two or more dementias available in the literature. This paper sought to summarize the most recent literature, primarily from 1990 through mid-1996, including recent reviews of the literature from previous decades. The purpose was to provide, in one location, a summary of neuropsychological (i.e., cognitive, motor, and psychiatric) characteristics of major noninfectious, progressive dementias and depression of middle and late adulthood. It is hoped that this review, particularly a summary table provided, will serve as a guide in the differential diagnosis of the dementias by clinicians. In addition to Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementias, Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, Huntington's disease, and frontal lobe dementia, the impact of depression on cognitive functioning is covered given the frequency with which neuropsychologists are asked to differentiate depression from primary dementia.


Ateneo Parmense Acta Biomed. 1979;50(4):209-19.
Problems in differential diagnosis between early presenile dementia and depression in elderly persons
de Risio C, Mazzucchi A.

The difficulties in correct differential diagnosis between depression and early pre-senile dementia syndromes are pointed-out by the AA. They underline that, on the ground of literature reports and clinical experience, the instrumental methods (electroencephalography, cerebral blood flow examination, pneumoencephalography, evoked cerebral responses, etc...) appear of little use in differential diagnosis, if separately considered. A particular attention is called on psychometric tests, in order to worn the non-specialist against any too over-simplified and mechanistic acceptance of test results.


Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2004 [Epub ahead of print]. Epub 2003 Oct 15.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in Alzheimer's Disease. A Practical Update for the Clinician.
Lyketsos CG, Lee HB.
Division of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md., USA.

Over 80% of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) develop 'noncognitive' neuropsychiatric symptoms at some point during the course of their illness. Depression is among the most frequent of such comorbidities. Affecting up to 50% of AD patients, depression is associated with severe negative consequences for patients and caregivers. Despite having a presentation in the context of AD that differs from typical 'geriatric' depression, it can be detected and quantified reliably, and can be differentiated from the other neuropsychiatric symptoms of AD. Several effective treatment modalities for depression in AD are available. In many cases, these reduce its adverse impact on patients and caregivers. This paper provides an overview of current knowledge regarding depression in AD for the clinician. It is followed by a practical discussion of the detection, evaluation, quantification, differential diagnosis and treatment of depression in AD.


J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2002 Fall;15(3):147-55.
Complexity in late-life depression: impact of confounding factors on diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes.
Kales HC, Valenstein M.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Medical Center 48105, USA.

Late-life depression is a heterogeneous syndrome. Although depression in elderly patients is highly treatable, a number of factors or confounds create complexity in its overall management. Patient factors, such as medical illness, neuropsychiatric comorbidity, and race, may interact with provider factors to make management more complex. Outcomes and services research indicate that these factors, particularly medical illness, affect whether late-life depression is appropriately detected, diagnosed, and treated. Attention to such factors must be included in an agenda for mental health services research, with emphasis on the delivery of effective treatment to elderly patients with depression and improved outcomes in clinical settings.

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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