The role of color vision disturbances in diagnostics of early diabetic retinopathy.
Value of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody detection for early diagnosis of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.
Insulinemia--a marker of early diagnosis and control of efficacy of treatment of type II diabetes.
Early diagnosis, early treatment and the new diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus.
Early diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and prevention of diabetes-related complications.
The dosage of anti-GAD and anti-IA2 autoantibodies: an aid to the early diagnosis of type 1 diabetes.
The importance of early diagnosis of treatable diabetic retinopathy for the four-year visual outcome in older-onset diabetes mellitus.
A model for early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary health care.
Evaluation of glycated hemoglobin in the early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
Klin Oczna. 2002;104(3-4):249-51.
The role of color vision disturbances in diagnostics of early diabetic retinopathy
Mulak M, Reniewska B, Kostus E, Balcewicz A, Misiuk-Hojlo M.
Katedry i Kliniki Okulistyki Akademii Medycznej we Wroclawiu.

PURPOSE: The evaluations of color vision sensitivity in children with type I diabetes mellitus without retinopathy. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We examined 96 young patients. They was divided into three groups: I: 35 children from 7 to 16 years old with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus duration of 1-8 years, II: 30 children with type I diabetes lasting more then 8 years, III--31 non-diabetic subjects as a control-matched for age and sex, without visual or systemic symptoms. The examinations of colour vision sensitivity were done with the IF-2AII-color Anomaloscope. In all cases were tested the dynamic blue-green equation of Moreland and two variables were determined: setting (matching) range (SR), calculated mid point (matching mid point) (CMP). RESULTS: In the blue-green equation setting range (SR) was significantly (p < 0.01) enlarged in the II group (diabetes mellitus duration > 8 years) and calculated mid point (CMP) was shifted but no significant. The results indicate a diminution of the colour discriminating sensitivity in the short wavelength half of the visible spectrum and diminution of the blue cone sensitivity in early diabetic retinopathy. CONCLUSIONS: Blue-green colour vision testing with the anomaloscope may serve as an additional test in the diagnosis of early diabetic retinopathy in children without vascular changes at the eye fundus.


Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2003 Aug;23(8):868-9
Value of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody detection for early diagnosis of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults
Huang YY, Huang P, Lou HL.
Department of Geriatrics, First People's Hospital of Guangzhou, Guangzhou 510055, China.

OBJECTIVE: To study the diagnostic values of detection of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GAD-Ab) for latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). METHOD: The clinical characteristics, body mass index (BMI), serum C-peptide levels, and HbAIC were compared between the 12 type 2 diabetic patients positive and 86 negative for GAD-Ab. RESULTS: The mean age, BMI, fasting and postprandial 2 h C-peptide levels in GAD-Ab-positive group were lower than those of GAD-Ab-negative group. The frequency of insulin use and prevalence of ketosis were higher in GAD-Ab-positive group than in GAD-Ab-negative group. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of LADA can be established according to GAD-Ab-positivity, clinical characteristics and islet function. Patients with LADA should receive insulin therapy as early as possible to protect the residue islet B cells, reduce the occurrence of ketosis, and prevent diabetic complications of the eye, kidney and nerves.


Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2001 Sep;106(3):793-800.
Insulinemia--a marker of early diagnosis and control of efficacy of treatment of type II diabetes
Szybinski Z, Szurkowska M.
Katedra i Klinika Endokrynologii Collegium Medicum Uniwersytet Jagiellonski w Krakowie.

Metabolic Syndrome X defined by Reaven is caused by peripheral insuline receptor resistance, leads to hyperinsulinemia regarded as a cause of secondary dyslipidemia, hypertension, hemostatic disturbances, atherosclerosis and insulin as a growth factor takes part in carcinogenesis. Depending on a contribution of the primary risk factors of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (2-DM) mainly genetic factors and obesity--an independent cause of insulin receptor resistance--glucose intolerance and 2-DM may overlap the Syndrome X. The aims of these studies were to determine in cross-sectional investigation a plasma insulin concentration in subjects aged over 35 years and to assess the clinical usefulness of insulinemia in early diagnosis of diabetes type 2. Investigations were carried out in Krakow town's district with 200,000 inhabitants, out of those 3060 randomly selected subjects (1720 females and 1340 males aged over 35 years) took part in the Polish Multicenter Study on Diabetes Epidemiology (PMSDE) with protocol and methods previously presented. Glucose concentration was determine by enzymatic method, insuline in plasma by IRMA method using ready kits produced by the Swierk-Poland. Logistic multiple regression model was used to estimate the effect of risk factors on the development of glucose intolerance, Chi square test, Fisher test and Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis by means of statistical package BMPD. Fasting insulinemia in persons with normal glucose tolerance and body weight (BMI < 25 and glycemia < 6.1 mmol/l) in subpopulation aged over 35 years was 5.73 (SD = 3.99) in men and 7.05 (SD = 4.67) microU/ml in women. These values were positively correlated with BMI and at the range 25-30 and > 30 increased by 50 and 100% responsively and in 2-nd h in OGTT by five-times. In the persons with glucose intolerance and new-diagnosed 2-DM insulinemia increased 2-3 fold depending on BMI, and gender. In the subgroup with 2-DM and BMI > 30, insulinemia in 2 h-OGTT treated values 152 (SD = 90) in women and 112 (SD = 83.4) microU/ml in men. Obesity and insulinemia in 2 h-OGTT in multiple analysis have been identified as a strong predictors and risk factors of impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) 2-DM fasting insulinemia may be useful as an indicator of the peripheric insulin receptor resistance. The results lead to the conclusions that determination of the plasma insulin concentration may be useful in early diagnosis of IGT and diabetes type 2, and should be monitored in the course of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment 2-DM. One of the main goals in the course of treatment of obesity and early phases of the 2-DM should be normalization or at least reduction of hyperinsulinemia. Insulinemia may be regarded also as an important criterion for selection of the oral antidiabetic drugs.


Br J Nutr. 2000 Dec;84 Suppl 2:S177-81.
Early diagnosis, early treatment and the new diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus.
Kuzuya T.
JA Shioya General Hospital, Yaita, Tocjigi, Japan.

The main purpose of treating diabetes is to prevent chronic complications. Strict glycemic control is known to suppress the occurrence and progression of these complications. The test for plasma glucose is essential to identify diabetic patients, as mild hyperglycemia without symptoms can be a risk factor for complications. The new classification and diagnostic criteria for diabetes were proposed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), WHO and Japan Diabetes Society (JDS) between 1997 and 1999. Diabetes is classified into four etiological categories; type 1, type 2, diabetes due to other specific mechanisms or conditions, and gestational diabetes. Another classification system according to the degree of metabolic abnormality has also been adopted. For diagnosis of diabetes, the JDS Committee classified the glycemic state into three categories based on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h plasma glucose in the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (2hPG); normal type (FPG <110 and 2hPG <140 mg/dl), diabetic type (FPG > or =126 and/or 2hPG > or =200 mg/dl), and borderline type (neither normal nor diabetic type). The borderline type corresponds to the sum of impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) based on ADA and WHO. Using the JDS criteria, diabetes is diagnosed when hyperglycemia of 'diabetic type' is confirmed on two or more occasions. ADA recommends the use of FPG alone for the diagnosis of diabetes, but findings from both Japan and Europe indicate that many diabetic subjects would be classified as non-diabetic solely on the FPG test. JDS recommends the use of the glucose tolerance test when the elevation of FPG is mild. Keeping glycemia near-normal by periodic monitoring of glycemic parameters and by appropriate treatment would prevent or reduce the diabetic complications in patients to a minimum.


Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003 Jul 1;109(1):41-4.
Early diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and prevention of diabetes-related complications.
Bartha JL, Martinez-Del-Fresno P, Comino-Delgado R.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of Puerto Real, Carretera Nacional IV, KM 665, 11150 Puerto Real, Cadiz, Spain.

OBJETIVE: To test the hypothesis that an early diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) could avoid some diabetes-related complications. STUDY DESIGN: We compared the rates of pregnancy complications commonly related to diabetes between 189 (later screening group) and 235 (earlier screening group) women with GDM diagnosed before and after adding an universal glucose tolerance screening performed in the first antenatal visit to the traditional screening performed at 24-28 weeks of gestation. RESULTS: Women in the later screening group were likely to have hydramnios (12.7 versus 2.1%, P<0.0001) and preterm deliveries (11.8 versus 5.5%; P=0.03). All cases of preterm premature rupture of membranes and fetal anomalies took place in the later screening group (P=0.03, P=0.007, respectively). Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney's U-test, Fisher's exact test and chi2-test. Statistical significance was set at 95% level (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Early glucose tolerance screening could avoid some diabetes-related complications in women with gestational diabetes. However, further studies are needed to know if it should be done in all pregnant women or only in those with a high risk of developing diabetes.


Rev Med Liege. 2000 Mar;55(3):169-75.
The dosage of anti-GAD and anti-IA2 autoantibodies: an aid to the early diagnosis of type 1 diabetes
Luyckx FH, Delcour S, Philips JC, Scheen AJ.
Departement de Biologie Clinique, Universite de Liege.

Diabetes mellitus is a frequent metabolic disease characterised by a complex and inconstant phenotypic expression that complicates the classification of patients and sometimes delays their optimal management. In that slowly progressive disease leading to severe and irreversible complications, the use of early and specific genetic, immunological and/or metabolic markers may help in the classification of diabetic patients and in the orientation of therapeutic strategies; furthermore, it is also an essential aid in the early screening of subjects at risk of developing the disease. The assessment of classical immunological markers, such as islet cell antibodies (ICA) or anti-insulin antibodies (IAA) has been recently completed by the screening of new promising markers such as GAD- and IA2-antibodies. The presence of these markers confirms the autoimmune component of the disease and thus supports the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, even if clinical symptoms are absent or inconsistent. In addition, it represents a strong argument in favour of the initiation of specific immunological therapies to preserve B-cell number and function.


Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1996 Apr;74(2):166-70.
The importance of early diagnosis of treatable diabetic retinopathy for the four-year visual outcome in older-onset diabetes mellitus.
Agardh E, Agardh CD, Hansson-Lundblad C, Cavallin-Sjoberg U.
Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

The four-year visual outcome was retrospectively studied in patients with older-onset diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in need of laser treatment. Visual acuity in 53 patients examined by ophthalmologists who referred the patients for an evaluation of retinopathy before laser treatment, was compared to that of 47 patients examined by ophthalmologists who also performed the photocoagulation. The number of eyes that became blind (visual acuity < or = 6/60) during the four-year period was higher (23/90 vs 9/91; p < 0.01) among referred patients, whereas the number of retinal examinations per patient during the three-year period prior to laser treatment did not differ between the two groups. Among referred patients, 13% had not been ophthalmologically examined before the treatment-requiring retinopathy was found. Corresponding figure for those examined at the laser centre was 23%. Severe macular oedema in regularly examined patients was more common among referred patients (9/30 vs 1/32; p < 0.01). The results indicate that screening for diabetic retinopathy in older-onset diabetes was not performed satisfactorily. In addition, laser treatment was delayed in older-onset diabetic patients controlled by ophthalmologists who referred patients for photocoagulation, resulting in an increased incidence of legally blind eyes. The study also stresses the importance of carrying out knowledge of when and how to diagnose early sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy to ophthalmologists referring patients for laser treatment.


Diabet Med. 1993 Mar;10(2):167-73.
A model for early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary health care.
Andersson DK, Lundblad E, Svardsudd K.
Primary Health Care Centre, Laxa, Sweden.

The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of conducting a case-finding programme for Type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary health care and to see whether random urinary glucose or random capillary blood glucose testing is the most suitable instrument for the early detection of Type 2 diabetes. Residents in the community of Laxa aged 35-64 years were subjected to testing during 1983-1987; those aged 65-79 were included from July 1985 and onwards. The urinary glucose testing was considered positive if a urinary dipstick was not unequivocally negative. The random blood glucose test was regarded as positive when > or = 8.0 mmol l-1. A diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes made within a follow-up period of 3 years from the initial examination was regarded as a positive outcome. Random blood glucose testing was performed on 3268 persons which was close to 85% of the eligible population. Urinary glucose tests were missing in 67 subjects. The random blood glucose test was positive in 220 persons and the urinalysis in 42 persons. A total of 234 individuals had a positive test, out of which 66 new diabetic cases were found. Sixty-four of these were detected by the random blood glucose testing and 20 by the urinalysis. The sensitivity for the random blood glucose and urinary glucose testing was 73 and 23%, the specificity was 95 and 99%, the positive predictive value 29 and 48%, and the negative predictive value 99 and 98%, respectively.


Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 1989 Jul;28(7):407-9, 443-4.
Evaluation of glycated hemoglobin in the early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus
Qiu WS.

Although oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has been the key examination in early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, but it still has some problems. It may be affected by some physiological or pathological changes and also requires frequent blood sampling. We investigated the usefulness of measuring the level of glycated hemoglobin (GHb) or HbA1 and HbA1c in screening or early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. OGTT was performed and fasting levels of HbA1 and HbA1c were measured in 168 subjects. According to the diagnostic criteria of WHO for 75g OGTT, 31 subjects were classified as normal, 35 as having impaired glucose tolerance test (IGT) and 102 as diabetics. The method used for determination of HbA1 and HbA1c was high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total discovery rate for GHb in diabetic patients was 87%. In patients with fasting level of plasma glucose (FPG) greater than or equal to 8 mmol/L the discovery rate was 100%, while in those with level of FPG less than or equal to 7.94 mmol/L the rate was 80%. Thus, GHb is very useful in screening and early diagnosis of NIDDM (type II), especially diabetes mellitus of the elderly.

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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