Transient dynamics and early diagnostics in infectious disease.
Early diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among adolescent girls.
Adenoviral infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: early diagnosis with quantitative detection of the viral genome in serum and urine.
Early diagnosis of SARS Coronavirus infection by real time RT-PCR.
Comparative analysis of methods for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme's disease in early stages of infection.
Indicators for early diagnosis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection and methods for final diagnosis.
Use of a rapid immunochromatographic test for early diagnosis of dengue virus infection.
J Math Biol. 2001 Nov;43(5):446-70.
Transient dynamics and early diagnostics in infectious disease.
Mohtashemi M, Levins R.
Department of Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 545 Technology Square, Room 421, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

To date, mathematical models of the dynamics of infectious disease have consistently focused on understanding the long-term behavior of the interacting components, where the steady state solutions are paramount. However for most acute infections, the longterm behavior of the pathogen population is of little importance to the host and population health. We introduce the notion of transient pathology, where the short-term dynamics of interaction between the immune system and pathogens is the principal focus. We identify the amplifying effect of the absence of a fully operative immune system on the pathogenesis of the initial inoculum, and its implication for the acute severity of the infection. We then formalize the underlying dynamics, and derive two measures of transient pathogenicity: the peak of infection (maximum pathogenic load) and the time to peak of infection, both crucial to understanding the early dynamics of infection and its consequences for early intervention.


Medicina (Kaunas). 2003;39(2):138-43.
Early diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among adolescent girls
Baseviciene I, Labanauskas L, Vysniauskaite N.
Clinic of Obstertics and Gynecology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania.

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most frequently found sexually transmitted disease among sexually active adolescent 15-19-year-old girls. In general, infection caused by C. trachomatis tends to be less abrupt in onset, clinical course is usually characterized as asymptomatic or with mild symptoms. If is although the cause of moderate to severe complications (infertility, pelvic inflammatory diseases) at a later age. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of chlamydia infection and the possibilities and of early detection among adolescent girls. METHODS: Four hundred eighty seven 15-19-year-old girls were questioned by anonymous questionnaire. All 240 sexually active girls were advised to come for the investigation to the Clinic of Pediatrics of Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital. Fifty nine girls underwent inspection of the genitalia, had a speculum and bimanual pelvic examination, test of CT/NG DNA hybridisation for C. trachomatis from vagina. Smears from urethra vagina and cervix were taken. RESULTS: Test for C. trachomatis infection was positive in 11 (18%) by CT/NG DNA hibridisation from vagina. Detection of bad smelling discharge from vagina together with nonspecific changes in vaginal and cervical mucosa, mount and methylene blue prepared smears could reliably predict the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection. CONCLUSION: We found high prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among adolescent girls. Only clinical symptoms together with nospecifical test were reliable predictors of the final diagnosis, enabling to start the early treatment.


Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003 Oct 27 [Epub ahead of print].
Adenoviral infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: early diagnosis with quantitative detection of the viral genome in serum and urine.
Teramura T, Naya M, Yoshihara T, Kanoh G, Morimoto A, Imashuku S.
1Kyoto City Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto, Japan.

Summary:Early diagnosis and prompt introduction of effective therapy are imperative to manage systemic, often fatal adenoviral (AdV) disease following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). We evaluated the usefulness of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of AdV disease in SCT recipients. Seven SCT recipients, including three with AdV disease, were retrospectively evaluated for AdV genome detection. In serum specimens, the AdV genome was detected at >10(3) copies/ml in the pre-SCT period in two of the five recipients studied. These two patients subsequently developed AdV disease. The three patients with AdV disease had high levels of >10(5) copies/ml during the 4-6 weeks post-SCT period. In none of these patients was the AdV genome detected in urine specimens in pre-SCT period. However, three recipients with detectable urinary levels during the period 1-2 weeks post-SCT subsequently developed AdV disease. Regarding the outcome, two of the three patients with AdV disease died of progressive renal failure. Our results suggest that quantitative determination of the AdV genome in serum and urine is useful to identify patients at high risk of developing AdV disease. Prospectively applied, these measures are expected to improve the dismal outcome of AdV disease in SCT recipients.


J Clin Virol. 2003 Dec;28(3):233-8.
Early diagnosis of SARS Coronavirus infection by real time RT-PCR.
Poon LL, Chan KH, Wong OK, Yam WC, Yuen KY, Guan Y, Lo YM, Peiris JS.
Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus was recently identified as the aetiological agent of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Molecular assays currently available for detection of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-Cov) have low sensitivity during the early stage of the illness. OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate a sensitive diagnostic test for SARS by optimizing the viral RNA extraction methods and by applying real-time quantitative RT-PCR technology. STUDY DESIGN: 50 nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples collected from days 1-3 of disease onset from SARS patients in whom SARS CoV infections was subsequently serologically confirmed and 30 negative control samples were studied. Samples were tested by: (1) our first generation conventional RT-PCR assay with a routine RNA extraction method (Lancet 361 (2003) 1319), (2) our first generation conventional RT-PCR assay with a modified RNA extraction method, (3) a real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay with a modified RNA extraction method. RESULTS: Of 50 NPA specimens collected during the first 3 days of illness, 11 (22%) were positive in our first generation RT-PCR assay. With a modification in the RNA extraction protocol, 22 (44%) samples were positive in the conventional RT-PCR assay. By combining the modified RNA extraction method and real-time quantitative PCR technology, 40 (80%) of these samples were positive in the real-time RT-PCR assay. No positive signal was observed in the negative controls. CONCLUSION: By optimizing RNA extraction methods and applying quantitative real time RT-PCR technologies, the sensitivity of tests for early diagnosis of SARS can be greatly enhanced.


Klin Lab Diagn. 2003 Apr;(4):45-6.
Comparative analysis of methods for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme's disease in early stages of infection
Kurdina MI, Anan'eva LP, Makarenko LA, Burova AA, Malikov VE.

Different methods of laboratory diagnostics were comparatively analyzed in examining 25 patients at the early infection stage. Sera were measured by using various serological reactions. Specific antibodies were determined by using the reaction of indirect immune-fluorescence (RIIF), the immune-enzyme analysis (IEA) and the complement-binding reaction (CBR) in 83.1%, 54.4% and 12.5% of cases, respectively. Essential differences in sensitivity were detected between the above methods. RIIF was proven to be a reliable and sufficiently sensitive method in the laboratory diagnostics of Lyma's disease. While the use of two methods, i.e. RIIF and IEA, ensures the highest percentage of detection of antibodies to the causative agent of Lyma's disease.


Nippon Rinsho. 2002 Jun;60(6):1108-13.
Indicators for early diagnosis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection and methods for final diagnosis
Shiomi M.
Department or Pediatric Emergent Medicine and Infectious Disease Center, Osaka City General Hospital.

Bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramp, history of barbecued beef for dinner at a restaurant and evidence of outbreak are important signs of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections. Although early antibiotics therapy, such as fosfomycin and fluoroquinolones, is considered to be effective in Japan, stool cultures before antibiotics are essential for final diagnosis. In cases of hemorrhagic colitis or hemolytic uremic syndrome, when cultures are negative, detection of anti O-type specific lipopolysaccharides IgM antibodies is useful for estimate of causative EHEC. In our hospital, non-O157 EHECs increase in number as the causes of pediatric HUS since 1999.


Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002 Mar;21(3):224-6. Epub 2002 Mar 16.
Use of a rapid immunochromatographic test for early diagnosis of dengue virus infection.
Kittigul L, Suankeow K.
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, 420/1 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

Acute serum samples collected from 92 patients were analysed for the presence of immunoglobulin M and G antibodies against dengue viruses using a rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test. Of 52 patients with dengue virus infection diagnosed using a standard hemagglutination inhibition test, 41 patients demonstrated dengue virus infection using the IC test. Half of the serum samples collected on day 3 after the onset of fever were positive for dengue antibodies, and all were positive on day 6 after symptom onset. In comparison with the hemagglutination inhibition test, the rapid IC test showed 79% sensitivity and 95% specificity. The efficiency of the test was 86%. The IC test showed good agreement with the hemagglutination inhibition test (k=0.72). The IC test is quick to perform and provides early diagnosis of dengue virus infection.

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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