It may be useful to make a distinction between the above two categories,even if there is in practice considerable overlap, especially as techniques advance.

A prosthesis ("fabricated substitute for a diseased or missing part of the body", according to one dictionary) we may conveniently use as a term for a substitute part which is usable in a more or less normal lifestyle.

"Artificial organs" we may regard as a more general term to include also life-saving devices such as the "iron lung" and heart-lung machine, which up to now, due to their unweildy nature, have been used primarily in hospitals or other static situations.

"Simple" mechanical prostheses (artificial limbs, teeth) have a long history. Though involving considerably more practical difficulties, we might also include in this category more recent developments such as implanted bone-reinforcements and hip-joint replacements.

Still in the "future-music" category for today's patient, but definitely practical, are "bionic" limbs with control and sensory links with the body's nervous system. Similar, if more ambitious, developments appear possible with respect to the eye

ABIOMED Provides Update on AbioCor Trial Enrollment Tenth Patient Implanted at Texas Heart Institute.
The AbioCor implantable replacement heart.
Continuous flow pumps and total artificial hearts: management issues.
Total artificial heart: destination therapy.
March 10, 2003 .
ABIOMED Provides Update on AbioCor Trial Enrollment Tenth Patient Implanted at Texas Heart Institute.

- Periodic announcements to replace individual patient reports - ABIOMED, Inc. (NASDAQ: ABMD) today provided an update on the status of patient enrollment in the AbioCor® Implantable Replacement Heart clinical trial. As of this date, a total of 10 patients have been enrolled in the AbioCor initial clinical trial. Three patients are currently on AbioCor support. These include previously- announced patients (the eighth and ninth enrollees) implanted on January 7, 2003 and January 22, 2003 respectively at Jewish Hospital in Louisville, KY, and a tenth enrollee, announced today for the first time, implanted by Dr. Bud Frazier of the Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital in Houston, TX on February 24, 2003. No further information will be made available by ABIOMED at this time. The patients and their families have requested that their confidentiality be maintained, including names, personal information, and any reports of their medical condition. "We are very pleased with the rate of enrollment in the AbioCor clinical trial since the beginning of the calendar year," said Dr. Robert T. V. Kung, ABIOMED's Chief Scientific Officer. "We believe we have recaptured the momentum lost in 2002, and are working diligently to maintain that momentum. We are excited to be moving forward into the final third of the 15 implants authorized by the FDA for the clinical trial of the first generation AbioCor implantable heart." "Going forward," said Dr. Edward E. Berger, Vice President for Strategic Planning and Policy, "ABIOMED will be providing only monthly updates on the status of the clinical trial in order to keep our investors and the public informed of our progress. These updates will include any significant events that have occurred within the month. It is our goal to eliminate special announcement of individual implants and or patient-specific events - either positive or negative - as they occur. We believe that the trial has advanced to a point where monthly updates should be sufficient to keep all interested parties adequately informed of material developments. Furthermore, elimination of the expectation of company announcements on individual patients will be beneficial to the processes of care within the trial, the patients and their families, and the overall management of the trial." ABIOMED will next update the progress of the AbioCor trial in a presentation at the Banc of America Securities Healthcare Conference on March 25, 2003 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Information about how investors will be informed about the content of this presentation will be made available prior to the event. Based in Danvers, Massachusetts, ABIOMED, Inc. (pronounced "AB'-EE-O-MED") is a leading developer, manufacturer and marketer of medical products designed to assist or replace the pumping function of the failing heart. The Company's AbioCor Implantable Replacement Heart is the subject of an initial clinical trial conducted under an Investigational Device Exemption from the United States Food and Drug Administration. The AbioCor has not been approved for commercial distribution, and is not available for use or sale outside of the initial clinical trial. ABIOMED currently manufactures and sells the BVS®, a heart assist device for the temporary support of all patients with failing but potentially recoverable hearts.

Ann Thorac Surg. 2003 Jun;75(6 Suppl):S93-9
The AbioCor implantable replacement heart
Dowling RD, Gray LA Jr, Etoch SW, Laks H, Marelli D, Samuels L, Entwistle J, Couper G, Vlahakes GJ, Frazier OH
Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, USA

The AbioCor implantable replacement heart (IRH) is the first available totally implantable artificial heart. We recently initiated a multicenter trial of this device in patients with severe, irreversible biventricular failure. Patients who were not candidates for other therapies, including transplantation, were evaluated. All candidates were adults with inotrope-dependent biventricular failure, whose 30-day predicted mortality was higher than 70%. A three-dimensional computerized fit study predicted fit of the AbioCor thoracic unit in all recipients. At operation, the internal battery controller and transcutaneous energy transfer unit were placed. The AbioCor thoracic unit was placed in an orthotopic position after incision of the ventricals. There were 2 intraoperative deaths (due to intraoperative bleeding or aprotinin reaction). Four late deaths were recorded, 1 from multisystem organ failure and 3 cerebrovascular accidents. Autopsy revealed thrombus on the atrial struts of the 3 patients with cerebrovascular accident. Blood pumps and valves were clean on all patients. Significant morbidity was observed, primarily related to preexisting severity of illness. However, 3 patients recovered to the point of being able to take multiple trips outside of the hospital. Two patients were discharged from the hospital, with 1 patient being discharged home for more than 7 months. No significant device malfunctions or multi-system organ failure device-related infections were noted. The AbioCor IRH may be effective therapy for patients with end-stage heart failure. Many milestones have been achieved in the initial trial in humans, including the successful discharge of a patient to home and no significant device malfunctions. The occurrence of stroke is likely related to the presence of thrombus on the atrial struts and may be decreased as these atrial struts have been removed for future clinical implants.

Ann Thorac Surg. 2003 Jun;75(6 Suppl):S79-85
Continuous flow pumps and total artificial hearts: management issues

Myers TJ, Robertson K, Pool T, Shah N, Gregoric I, Frazier OH
Cardiovascular Surgical Research Laboratories, Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030, USA

Feasibility studies are underway for new axial flow ventricular assist systems and with a total artificial heart (TAH). The axial flow pumps provide continuous flow from the left ventricle (LV) to the aorta; the TAH provides pulsatile flow to the pulmonary and systemic circulation. Understanding the differences between these systems is necessary for appropriate patient selection and management. We compared the Jarvik 2000 axial-flow pump and the AbioCor TAH. The Jarvik 2000 pump is placed in the LV with its outflow graft anastomosed to the aorta. This system is used for bridge-to-transplantation and destination therapy. The AbioCor TAH provides complete circulatory support. The AbioCor is used for destination therapy in patients expected to die in less than 30 days. Worldwide, 45 patients have received the Jarvik 2000 as a bridge to transplantation (n = 34) or destination therapy (n = 11) for an average duration of support of 132.8 days (5 to 853 days). In 30 bridge-to-transplantation cases, 14 patients (47%) have undergone heart transplantation, 5 (17%) continue to be supported with the Jarvik 2000 device, and 11 (37%) have died. Five of 7 patients supported by the AbioCor TAH survived beyond the perioperative period; 4 were ambulatory, 2 were discharged from the hospital, and 1 is at home 13 months after implantation. Anticoagulation therapy and infection management are necessary for both systems. Therapy with inotropic agents, vasoactive drugs, a pacemaker, and electrolyte normalization is necessary for Jarvik patients. AbioCor-supported patients do not require medications to support heart function. Vasoactive agents may be useful for controlling blood pressure.

Cardiol Clin. 2003 Feb;21(1):115-8
Total artificial heart: destination therapy
Samuels LE, Dowling R
Hahnemann University Hospital, Broad & Vine Streets, Philadelphia, PA 19102-1192, USA

The AbioCor is a revolutionary device. It is the only device of its kind in the clinical world. The role of the AbioCor is to provide permanent replacement of the failing heart for patients who are not transplant candidates. The clinical trial has been successful in the majority (four of seven) of patients implanted thus far. Eight more patients are required to complete the initial feasibility phase of the trial, afterwhich it remains to be seen if the trial will expand to additional patient populations. The powerful features of the pump have been demonstrated in the extremely sick group of candidates that enrolled in the study. The TET system has worked extremely well. Lastly, the milestone of discharging a patient to home on a completely internal artificial heart has been realized. The profile of CardioWest is very different from AbioCor. Although both were initially designed as permanent replacement therapies, the CardioWest has been extremely useful as a bridging device, and it may have a broader application in the future. For the CardioWest, the most favorable groups are patients with cardiomyopathy who decompensate while awaiting transplantation. On the other hand, the AbioCor is indicated in nontransplant candidates with biventricular failure who have a less than 30-day predicted survival. Proper patient selection is critical to achieving success with either device.

on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science

Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Nuts and seeds
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Flavonoids, carotenes
Vitamin B
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Heart & heart devices
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years

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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview

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