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Influence of short-term repeated fasting on the longevity of female (NZB x NZW)F1 mice.
Treatment of diabetes in patients with severe obesity.
Caloric restriction inhibits seizure susceptibility in epileptic EL mice by reducing blood glucose.
A fasting and vegetarian diet treatment trial on chronic inflammatory disorders.
Effects of Age and Dietary Restriction on Lifespan and Oxidative Stress of SAMP8 Mice with Learning and Memory impairments.
Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake.
Adult-onset calorie restriction and fasting delay spontaneous tumorigenesis in p53-deficient mice.
Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans.
 
   
   

Mech Ageing Dev 2000 May 18;115(1-2):61-71
Influence of short-term repeated fasting on the longevity of female (NZB x NZW)F1 mice.
Sogawa H, Kubo C.
Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, 812-8582, Fukuoka, Japan. sogawa@cephal.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Caloric restriction in rodents is well known to retard the rate of aging, increase mean and maximum life-spans, and inhibit the occurrence of many age-associated diseases. However, little is known about the influence of short-term repeated fasting on longevity. In this study, female (NZB x NZW)F1 mice were used to test the physiological effect of short-term repeated fasting (4 consecutive days, every 2 weeks). The results showed that fasting mice survived significantly longer than the full-fed mice, in spite of the fasting group having a heavier body weight than the control group. Mean survival times for fasting and control mice were 64.0+/-15.3 and 47.9+/-9.4 weeks, respectively. Short-term repeated fasting manipulation was also effective on the prolongation of life-span in autoimmune-prone mice.

   
   

Biomed Pharmacother 2000 Mar;54(2):74-9
Treatment of diabetes in patients with severe obesity.
Scheen AJ
Department of Medicine, CHU Sart Tilman (B35), Liege 1, Belgium.

ABSTRACT: Besides genetic predisposition, obesity is the most important risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus, and weight reduction has been shown to markedly improve blood glucose control in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Therapeutic strategies for the obese diabetic patient include: 1) promoting weight loss through lifestyle modifications (hypocaloric diet and exercise) and anti-obesity drugs (orlistat, sibutramine, etc.); 2) improving blood glucose control, essentially through the reduction of insulin resistance (metformin, eventually thiazolidinediones) or insulin need (alpha-glucosidase inhibitors) and, at a later stage, the correction of defective insulin secretion (sulphonylureas, repaglinide) or low circulating insulin levels (exogenous insulin); and 3) treating common associated risk factors, such as arterial hypertension and dyslipidaemias, to improve cardiovascular prognosis. When morbid obesity is present, both restoring a good glycemic control and correcting associated risk factors can only be obtained through marked and sustained weight loss. This primary objective justifies more aggressive weight reduction programmes, including very low-calorie diets and bariatric surgery, but only within a multidisciplinary approach and in well-selected patients.

   
   

Epilepsia 2001 Nov;42(11):1371-8.
Caloric restriction inhibits seizure susceptibility in epileptic EL mice by reducing blood glucose.
Greene AE, Todorova MT, McGowan R, Seyfried TN.
Biology Department, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02167, USA.

Caloric restriction (CR) involves underfeeding and has long been recognized as a dietary therapy that improves health and increases longevity. In contrast to severe fasting or starvation, CR reduces total food intake without causing nutritional deficiencies. Although fasting has been recognized as an effective antiseizure therapy since the time of the ancient Greeks, the mechanism by which fasting inhibits seizures remains obscure. The influence of CR on seizure susceptibility was investigated at both juvenile (30 days) and adult (70 days) ages in the EL mouse, a genetic model of multifactorial idiopathic epilepsy. METHODS: The juvenile EL mice were separated into two groups and fed standard lab chow either ad libitum (control, n=18) or with a 15% CR diet (treated, n=17). The adult EL mice were separated into three groups; control (n=15), 15% CR (n=6), and 30% CR (n=3). Body weights, seizure susceptibility, and the levels of blood glucose and ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate) were measured over a 10-week treatment period. Simple linear regression and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze the relations among seizures, glucose, and ketones. RESULTS: CR delayed the onset and reduced the incidence of seizures at both juvenile and adult ages and was devoid of adverse side effects. Furthermore, mild CR (15%) had a greater antiepileptogenic effect than the well-established high-fat ketogenic diet in the juvenile mice. The CR-induced changes in blood glucose levels were predictive of both blood ketone levels and seizure susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that CR may reduce seizure susceptibility in EL mice by reducing brain glycolytic energy. Our preclinical findings suggest that CR may be an effective antiseizure dietary therapy for human seizure disorders.

   
   

Acta Derm Venereol 1983;63(5):397-403.
A fasting and vegetarian diet treatment trial on chronic inflammatory disorders.
Lithell H, Bruce A, Gustafsson IB, Hoglund NJ, Karlstrom B, Ljunghall K, Sjolin K, Venge P, Werner I, Vessby B.

Twenty patients with arthritis and various skin diseases were studied on a metabolic ward during a 2-week period of modified fast followed by a 3-week period of vegetarian diet. During fasting, arthralgia was less intense in many subjects. In some types of skin diseases (pustulosis palmaris et plantaris and atopic eczema) an improvement could be demonstrated during the fast. During the vegan diet, both signs and symptoms returned in most patients, with the exception of some patients with psoriasis who experienced an improvement. The concentrations of lactoferrin in serum reflect the turnover and activity of neutrophil leukocytes. When this protein was initially increased it fell to normal values in most cases. The improvement or impairment of signs and symptoms was related to the lactoferrin levels in serum.

   
   

J Nutr Health Aging 2000;4(3):182-186
Effects of Age and Dietary Restriction on Lifespan and Oxidative Stress of SAMP8 Mice with Learning and Memory impairments.
Choi J, Kim D
Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University; 599-1 Daeyeon-Dong, Nam-Gu, Pusan 608-737, Korea.

This study was to evaluate the effect of dietary restriction (DR) on lifespan and oxidative stress of dementia mouse model SAMP8 with impaired learning and memory. SAMP8 female mice were fed either ad libitum (AL) or fed 60% of food intake of AL. Results showed that basal metabolic rates (BMR) were significantly lower (15 to 22%) in DR with increased median and maximum lifespans, suggesting feed and gross efficiencies were significantly lower in DR than in AL. Grading score of senescence resulted in a marked improvement about 2-fold by DR compared with AL. The amounts of lipofuscin at 12 months were significantly lowered 16% in DR than that of AL. Median and maximal lifespans significantly increased (28.5% and 16.4%, respectively) by DR, and also lowered superoxide radical about 15~45% in DR compared with AL at 4, 8 and 12 months of age. On the other hand, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were higher (about 15~30%) in DR than those in AL group of SAMP8 except for 4 months of age. Our results suggest that 40% calorie restricted SAMP8 can effectively suppress dementia-related abnormalities during aging.

   
   

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003 May 13;100(10):6216-20
Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake.
Anson RM, Guo Z, De Cabo R, Iyun T, Rios M, Hagepanos A, Ingram DK, Lane MA, Mattson MP.
Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224.

Dietary restriction has been shown to have several health benefits including increased insulin sensitivity, stress resistance, reduced morbidity, and increased life span. The mechanism remains unknown, but the need for a long-term reduction in caloric intake to achieve these benefits has been assumed. We report that when C57BL6 mice are maintained on an intermittent fasting (alternate-day fasting) dietary-restriction regimen their overall food intake is not decreased and their body weight is maintained. Nevertheless, intermittent fasting resulted in beneficial effects that met or exceeded those of caloric restriction including reduced serum glucose and insulin levels and increased resistance of neurons in the brain to excitotoxic stress. Intermittent fasting therefore has beneficial effects on glucose regulation and neuronal resistance to injury in these mice that are independent of caloric intake.

   
   

Carcinogenesis. 2002 May;23(5):817-22
Adult-onset calorie restriction and fasting delay spontaneous tumorigenesis in p53-deficient mice.
Berrigan D, Perkins SN, Haines DC, Hursting SD.
Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892-7105, USA.

Heterozygous p53-deficient (p53(+/-)) mice, a potential model for human Li-Fraumeni Syndrome, have one functional allele of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. These mice are prone to spontaneous neoplasms, most commonly sarcoma and lymphoma; the median time to death of p53+/- mice is 18 months. We have shown previously that juvenile-onset calorie restriction (CR) to 60% of ad libitum (AL) intake delays tumor development in young p53-null (-/-) mice by a p53-independent and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-related mechanism. To determine whether CR is effective when started in adult p53-deficient mice, and to compare chronic CR with an intermittent fasting regimen, male p53+/- mice (7-10 months old, 31-32 mice/group) were randomly assigned to the following regimens: (i) AL (AIN-76A diet), (ii) CR to 60% of AL intake or (iii) 1 day/week fast. Food availability on non-fasting days was controlled to prevent compensatory over feeding. Relative to the AL group, CR significantly delayed (P = 0.001) the onset of tumors in adult mice, whereas the 1 day/week fast caused a moderate delay (P = 0.039). Substantial variation in longevity and maximum body weight within treatments was not correlated with variation in growth characteristics of individual mice. In a separate group of p53+/- mice treated for 4 weeks (n = five mice per treatment), plasma IGF-1 levels in CR versus AL mice were reduced by 20% (P < 0.01) and leptin levels were reduced by 71% (P < 0.01); fasted mice had intermediate levels of leptin and IGF-1. Our findings that CR or a 1 day/week fast suppressed carcinogenesis-even when started late in life in mice predestined to develop tumors due to decreased p53 gene dosage-support efforts to identify suitable interventions influencing energy balance in humans as a tool for cancer prevention.

   
   

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 27;101(17):6659-63. Epub 2004 Apr 19
Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans.
Fontana L, Meyer TE, Klein S, Holloszy JO.
Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Little is known regarding the long-term effects of caloric restriction (CR) on the risk for atherosclerosis. We evaluated the effect of CR on risk factors for atherosclerosis in individuals who are restricting food intake to slow aging. We studied 18 individuals who had been on CR for an average of 6 years and 18 age-matched healthy individuals on typical American diets. We measured serum lipids and lipoproteins, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, blood pressure (BP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), platelet-derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB), body composition, and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). The CR group were leaner than the comparison group (body mass index, 19.6 +/- 1.9 vs. 25.9 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2); percent body fat, 8.7 +/- 7% vs. 24 +/- 8%). Serum total cholesterol (Tchol), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ratio of Tchol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, CRP, PDFG-AB, and systolic and diastolic BP were all markedly lower, whereas HDL-C was higher, in the CR than in the American diet group. Medical records indicated that the CR group had serum lipid-lipoprotein and BP levels in the usual range for individuals on typical American diets, and similar to those of the comparison group, before they began CR. Carotid artery IMT was approximately 40% less in the CR group than in the comparison group. Based on a range of risk factors, it appears that long-term CR has a powerful protective effect against atherosclerosis. This interpretation is supported by the finding of a low carotid artery IMT.

 
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FASTING / LOW CALORIE PROGRAMS
on the Adriatic Coast
The Anti-Aging Fasting Program consists of a 7-28 days program (including 3 - 14 fasting days). 7-28-day low-calorie diet program is also available .
More information
    The anti-aging story (summary)
Introduction. Statistical review. Your personal aging curve
  Aging and Anti-aging. Why do we age?
    2.1  Aging forces (forces that cause aging
     
Internal (free radicals, glycosylation, chelation etc.) 
External (Unhealthy diet, lifestyle, wrong habits, environmental pollution, stress, poverty-change "poverty zones", or take it easy. etc.) 
    2.2 Anti-aging forces
     
Internal (apoptosis, boosting your immune system, DNA repair, longevity genes) 
External (wellness, changing your environment; achieving comfortable social atmosphere in your life, regular intake of anti-aging drugs, use of replacement organs, high-tech medicine, exercise)
    2.3 Aging versus anti-aging: how to tip the balance in your favour!
 
    3.1 Caloric restriction and fasting extend lifespan and decrease all-cause mortality (Evidence)
      Human studies
Monkey studies
Mouse and rat studies
Other animal studies
    3.2 Fasting and caloric restriction prevent and cure diseases (Evidence)
        Obesity
Diabetes
Hypertension and Stroke
Skin disorders
Mental disorders
Neurogical disorders
Asthmatic bronchitis, Bronchial asthma
Bones (osteoporosis) and fasting
Arteriosclerosis and Heart Disease
Cancer and caloric restriction
Cancer and fasting - a matter of controversy
Eye diseases
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Sleeping disorders
Allergies
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gastrointestinal diseases
Infertility
Presbyacusis
    3.3 Fasting and caloric restriction produce various
      biological effects. Effects on:
        Energy metabolism
Lipids metabolism
Protein metabolism and protein quality
Neuroendocrine and hormonal system
Immune system
Physiological functions
Reproductive function
Radio-sensitivity
Apoptosis
Cognitive and behavioral functions
Biomarkers of aging
    3.4 Mechanisms: how does calorie restriction retard aging and boost health?
        Diminishing of aging forces
  Lowering of the rate of gene damage
  Reduction of free-radical production
  Reduction of metabolic rate (i.e. rate of aging)
  Lowering of body temperature
  Lowering of protein glycation
Increase of anti-aging forces
  Enhancement of gene reparation
  Enhancement of free radical neutralisation
  Enhancement of protein turnover (protein regeneration)
  Enhancement of immune response
  Activation of mono-oxygenase systems
  Enhance elimination of damaged cells
  Optimisation of neuroendocrine functions
    3.5 Practical implementation: your anti-aging dieting
        Fasting period.
Re-feeding period.
Safety of fasting and low-calorie dieting. Precautions.
      3.6 What can help you make the transition to the low-calorie life style?
        Social, psychological and religious support - crucial factors for a successful transition.
Drugs to ease the transition to caloric restriction and to overcome food cravings (use of adaptogenic herbs)
Food composition
Finding the right physician
    3.7Fasting centers and fasting programs.
  Food to eat. Dishes and menus.
    What to eat on non-fasting days. Dishes and menus. Healthy nutrition. Relation between foodstuffs and diseases. Functional foods. Glycemic index. Diet plan: practical summary. "Dr. Atkins", "Hollywood" and other fad diets versus medical science
     

Vegetables
Fruits
Bread, cereals, pasta, fiber
Glycemic index
Fish
Meat and poultry
Sugar and sweet
Legumes
Fats and oils
Dairy and eggs
Mushrooms
Nuts and seeds
Alcohol
Coffee
Water
Food composition

  Anti-aging drugs and supplements
    5.1 Drugs that are highly recommended
      (for inclusion in your supplementation anti-aging program)
        Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Co-enzyme Q10
Lipoic acid
Folic acid
Selenium
Flavonoids, carotenes
DHEA
Vitamin B
Carnitin
SAM
Vinpocetine (Cavinton)
Deprenyl (Eldepryl)
    5.2 Drugs with controversial or unproven anti-aging effect, or awaiting other evaluation (side-effects)
        Phyto-medicines, Herbs
HGH
Gerovital
Melatonin
      5.3 Drugs for treatment and prevention of specific diseases of aging. High-tech modern pharmacology.
        Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Arthritis
Cancer
Depression
Diabetes
Hyperlipidemia
Hypertension
Immune decline
Infections, bacterial
Infections, fungal
Memory loss
Menopause
Muscle weakness
Osteoporosis
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Sexual disorders
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    5.4 The place of anti-aging drugs in the whole
      program - a realistic evaluation
 
    6.1 Early diagnosis of disease - key factor to successful treatment.
      Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
Arthritis
Cancer
Depression
Diabetes
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Genetic disorders
Heart attacks
Hyperlipidemia
Hypertension
Immune decline
Infectious diseases
Memory loss
Muscle weakness
Osteoporosis
Parkinson's disease
Prostate hyperplasia
Stroke risk
Weight gaining
    6.2 Biomarkers of aging and specific diseases
    6.3 Stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning
    6.4 Gene manipulation
    6.5 Prosthetic body-parts, artificial organs
        Blood
Bones, limbs, joints etc.
Brain
Heart & heart devices
Kidney
Liver
Lung
Pancreas
Spleen
    6.6 Obesity reduction by ultrasonic treatment
  Physical activity and aging. Experimental and clinical data.
        Aerobic exercises
Stretching
Weight-lifting - body-building
Professional sport: negative aspects
 
  Conclusion: the whole anti-aging program
    9.1 Modifying your personal aging curve
      Average life span increment. Expert evaluation.
     
Periodic fasting and caloric restriction can add 40 - 50 years to your lifespan
Regular intake of anti-aging drugs can add 20-30 years to your lifespan
Good nutrition (well balanced, healthy food, individually tailord diet) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
High-tech bio-medicine service can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Quality of life (prosperity, relaxation, regular vocations) can add 15-25 years to your lifespan
Regular exercise and moderate physical activity can add 10-20 years to your lifespan
These approaches taken together can add 60-80 years to your lifespan, if you start young (say at age 20). But even if you only start later (say at 45-50), you can still gain 30-40 years


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    9.2 The whole anti-aging life style - brief summary 
    References eXTReMe Tracker
        The whole anti-aging program: overview
         
       

       
     
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